close

Anmelden

Neues Passwort anfordern?

Anmeldung mit OpenID

Hochschule Neubrandenburg Wie reagiert ein Land auf den

EinbettenHerunterladen
Hochschule Neubrandenburg
)DFKEHUHLFK *HVXQGKHLW 3ÀHJH 0DQDJHPHQW
6WXGLHQJDQJ 0DQDJHPHQW LP 6R]LDO XQG *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
:LH UHDJLHUW HLQ /DQG DXI GHQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHO PLW EHVRQGHUHU %HUFNVLFKWLJXQJ
GHU +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ DQ GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
0DVWHU$UEHLW
]XU
(UODQJXQJ GHV DNDGHPLVFKHQ *UDGHV
0DVWHU RI $UWV 0$
9RUJHOHJW YRQ
$QMD 5X‰
XUQQEQGHJEYWKHVLV
%HWUHXHU
3URI 'U 3HWHU 'HKQH
7DJ GHU (LQUHLFKXQJ ,QKDOWVYHU]HLFKQLV
Inhaltsverzeichnis
,QKDOWVYHU]HLFKQLV II
$EELOGXQJV XQG 7DEHOOHQYHU]HLFKQLV IV
$ENU]XQJVYHU]HLFKQLV V
(LQOHLWXQJ 1
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 3
.HUQHOHPHQWH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV 3
/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ 3
*HEXUWHQKlX¿JNHLW 6
:DQGHUXQJHQ 9
%HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ 11
5HJLRQDOH %HVRQGHUKHLWHQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQV 13
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 17
(QWVWHKXQJ XQG (QWZLFNOXQJ 17
'LH 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ GHV 6WDDWHV 24
,QVWLWXWLRQHQ DXI %XQGHVHEHQH 24
,QVWLWXWLRQHQ DXI /DQGHVHEHQH 25
'DV VR]LDOH 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHP 26
'LH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ 27
'LH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ 30
%DVLVGDWHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV 32
)LQDQ]LHUXQJ 32
/HLVWXQJVHUEULQJXQJ 32
$PEXODQWH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 33
$PEXODQWH 3ÀHJH 37
6WDWLRQlUH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 38
6WDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH 40
9HUVRUJXQJVVLWXDWLRQ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 42
*HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ 45
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP 49
bQGHUXQJ GHU )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXU ± :HOFKH 5ROOH VSLHOW GLH )DPLOLH IU bOWHUH" 49
'URKHQGHU 3ÀHJHQRWVWDQG" 51
'URKHQGHU bU]WHPDQJHO" 53
$XÀ|VXQJ GHV *HQHUDWLRQHQYHUWUDJHV =XVDPPHQEUXFK GHV 6\VWHPV GHU
6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ" 58
*HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DOV $UEHLWJHEHU 61
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH 62
(QWZLFNOXQJ GHU /HEHQVSKDVH $OWHU 62
$OWHUVELOGHU 63
II
,QKDOWVYHU]HLFKQLV
$OWHU .UDQNKHLW" 64
3RWHQ]LDOH GHU ÄMXQJHQ $OWHQ³ 65
3RWHQ]LDO EUJHUOLFKHV (QJDJHPHQW 66
3RWHQ]LDO $UEHLWVPDUNW 66
3RWHQ]LDO .RQVXPPDUNW 67
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ" 69
0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ XQG 5DKPHQSURJUDPPH GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ 69
'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH XQG 'HPRJUD¿HEHULFKW GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ 69
5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH 71
Exkurs: Multiple Häuser 73
)RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD Ä'DV $OWHU KDW =XNXQIW³ 74
=XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWW 'HPHQ] 75
0HKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKlXVHU 76
0D‰QDKPHQ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN 76
(LQIKUXQJ XQG (UZHLWHUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ 77
*HVHW]HVHQWZUIH XQG 5HIRUPHQ 77
:HLWHUH 3URMHNWH 79
:RKQHQ IU +LOIH 79
'RUI LP 'RUI 'REEHUWLQ 80
09\RX 81
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ 82
)|UGHUXQJ SURIHVVLRQHOOHU XQG IDPLOLlUHU 3ÀHJH 82
%HGDUIVJHUHFKWHU 5FN XQG 8PEDX YRQ 6WlGWHQ XQG '|UIHUQ 84
$OWHU  .UDQNKHLW *HVXQGKHLWVYHUKDOWHQ I|UGHUQ 85
$UEHLWVPDUNW XQG )OH[LELOLVLHUXQJ GHV 5HQWHQHLQWULWWVDOWHUV 85
2SWLPLHUXQJ GHU %HGDUIVSODQXQJ XQG GHU 9HUVRUJXQJVVWUXNWXUHQ 87
)D]LW 90
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV VI
(LGHVVWDWWOLFKH (UNOlUXQJ
III
$EELOGXQJV XQG 7DEHOOHQYHU]HLFKQLV
Abbildungs- und Tabellenverzeichnis
$EELOGXQJ -lKULJH XQG bOWHUH ELV 5
$EELOGXQJ (KHVFKOLH‰XQJHQ XQG DX‰HUHKHOLFKH .LQGHU 8
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVS\UDPLGHQ 11
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVDXIEDX GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ 14
$EELOGXQJ /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJXQJ 33
$EELOGXQJ $PEXODQWH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 35
$EELOGXQJ $PEXODQWH 3ÀHJH 37
$EELOGXQJ 6WDWLRQlUH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 38
$EELOGXQJ 6WDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH 41
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU bU]WH LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 44
$EELOGXQJ *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ LP =HLWYHUODXI 46
$EELOGXQJ *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR QDFK 7UlJHUQ 46
$EELOGXQJ $XVJDEHQ QDFK (LQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR 47
$EELOGXQJ $XVJDEHQ DPEXODQWHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR 47
$EELOGXQJ (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU $U]W]DKOHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG YRQ ELV 53
$EELOGXQJ 'XUFKVFKQLWWOLFKHV $OWHU GHU bU]WH QDFK DPEXODQWHP XQG VWDWLRQlUHP
6HNWRU 56
$EELOGXQJ $XVODVWXQJVJUDGH GHU .UDQNHQKDXVDEWHLOXQJHQ 58
7DEHOOH 'XUFKVFKQLWWOLFKH XQG IHUQHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ QDFK DXVJHZlKOWHQ
$OWHUVVWXIHQ 5
7DEHOOH 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG LQ GHQ HLQ]HOQHQ )DFKJHELHWHQ 43
IV
$ENU]XQJVYHU]HLFKQLV
Abkürzungsverzeichnis
$*/0%
%I$U0
%J99
%*:
%.b
%0$
%09%6
%3À9
%=J$
&0
&0,
',0',
'5*
*%$
*.9
*.9 :6*
*0*
*2b
,4:L*
.$L*
.%9
.+*
.9
.9.*
0'.
0*+
09=
3(,
3.9
31*
5.,
5.2
6*%
8%$
$UEHLWVJHPHLQVFKDIW GHU OHLWHQGHQ 0HGL]LQDOEHDPWLQQHQ XQG
± EHDPWHQ GHU /lQGHU
%XQGHVLQVWLWXW IU $U]QHLPLWWHO XQG 0HGL]LQSURGXNWH
%XQGHVLQVWLWXW IU JHVXQGKHLWOLFKHQ 9HUEUDXFKHUVFKXW] XQG
9HWHULQlUPHGL]LQ
%HWULHEVJHVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
%XQGHVlU]WHNDPPHU
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU $UEHLW XQG 6R]LDORUGQXQJ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU 9HUNHKU %DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ
%XQGHVSÀHJHVDW]YHURUGQXQJ
%XQGHV]HQWUDOH IU JHVXQGKHLWOLFKH $XINOlUXQJ
&DVH 0L[
&DVH 0L[ ,QGH[
'HXWVFKH ,QVWLWXW IU PHGL]LQLVFKH 'RNXPHQWDWLRQ XQG
,QIRUPDWLRQ
'LDJQRVLV UHODWHG JURXSV
*HPHLQVDPHU %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV
*HVHW]OLFKH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ
*.9 :HWWEHZHUEVVWlUNXQJVJHVHW]
*.9 0RGHUQLVLHUXQJVJHVHW]
*HEKUHQRUGQXQJ IU bU]WH
,QVWLWXW IU 4XDOLWlW XQG :LUWVFKDIWOLFKNHLW LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
.RQ]HQWULHUWH $NWLRQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
.DVVHQlU]WOLFKH %XQGHVYHUHLQLJXQJ
.UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ]LHUXQJVJHVHW]
.DVVHQlU]WOLFKH 9HUHLQLJXQJ
.UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJV.RVWHQGlPSIXQJVJHVHW]
0HGL]LQLVFKHU 'LHQVW GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
0HKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKDXV
0HGL]LQLVFKHV 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUXP
3DXO(KUOLFK,QVWLWXW
3ULYDWH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ
3ÀHJH1HXDXVULFKWXQJV*HVHW]
5REHUW.RFK,QVWLWXW
5DKPHQ.UDQNHQKDXVRUGQXQJ
6R]LDOJHVHW]EXFK
8PZHOWEXQGHVDPW
V
(LQOHLWXQJ
1. Einleitung
"Kinder kriegen die Leute immer." .RQUDG $GHQDXHU &'8 %XQGHVNDQ]OHU .QDSS -DKUH QDFKGHP .RQUDG $GHQDXHU GLHVHQ 6DW] lX‰HUWH VWHOOW GHU GHPRJUD¿
VFKH :DQGHO DOOH ZHVWOLFKHQ /lQGHU YRU EHVRQGHUH +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ 6HLW -DKU]HKQWHQ
HUIRUVFKW XQG SURJQRVWL]LHUW VFKHLQHQ GLH VR]LDOHQ SROLWLVFKHQ XQG |NRQRPLVFKHQ )RO
JHQ GHV :DQGHOV HUVW LQ GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ VSUEDU ]X ZHUGHQ REZRKO VLQNHQGH *HEXU
WHQ]DKOHQ XQG HLQH VWHLJHQGH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ NHLQH (UVFKHLQXQJHQ VLQG GLH 'HXWVFK
ODQG Y|OOLJ XQYHUPLWWHOW WUHIIHQ 'HQQRFK ZLUG GDV 7KHPD HUVW VHLW NQDSS ]HKQ -DKUHQ
HUQVW JHQRPPHQ XQG |IIHQWOLFK GLVNXWLHUW 'LH NRQWLQXLHUOLFK DEQHKPHQGHQ 6FKOHU XQG
$EJDQJV]DKOHQ XQG ZDFKVHQGHU 0DQJHO DQ $XV]XELOGHQGHQ XQG )DFKNUlIWHQ LQ :LUW
VFKDIWV :LVVHQVFKDIWV XQG 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJVEHUHLFKHQ EHVRQGHUV LQ GHPRJUD¿VFK VWDUN
EHWURIIHQHQ 5HJLRQHQ HUJDEHQ 3UREOHPODJHQ GLH 8PJDQJV EHVWHQIDOOV /|VXQJVVWUDWH
JLHQ HUIRUGHUWHQ 6R ZXUGH LP 1RYHPEHU GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ HLQHU 'HPRJUD¿HVWUD
WHJLH ZHOFKH GLH GHPRJUD¿VFKH /DJH 'HXWVFKODQGV HUIDVVHQ XQG GLH GDUDXV DEOHLWEDUH
NQIWLJH (QWZLFNOXQJ DQDO\VLHUHQ VROO YRQ GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ EHVFKORVVHQ 'DVV GHU
+DQGOXQJVEHGDUI HLQ 8PGHQNHQ HU]HXJW KDW EHZHLVHQ DXFK 5DKPHQSURJUDPPH RGHU GLH
)RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD ]XP GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO GLH YRQ GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ KHUDXVJH
JHEHQ ZXUGHQ
,Q GLHVHU $UEHLW VROO YRU DOOHP GDUDXI HLQJHJDQJHQ ZHUGHQ ZLH VLFK GLH =XQDKPH GHV $Q
WHLOV bOWHUHU DQ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ XQG GLH JOHLFK]HLWLJH $EQDKPH GHU *HVDPWEHY|ONHUXQJ
DXI GLH /HLVWXQJVDQVSUFKH DQ GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DXVZLUNW 9RQ EHVRQGHUHP ,QWHUHV
VH LVW KLHUEHL ZLH GHU NQIWLJ VWHLJHQGH 3ÀHJHEHGDUI DEJHGHFNW ZHUGHQ NDQQ 8P GLHVH
)UDJH ]X EHDQWZRUWHQ ZHUGH LFK LQ GHQ .DSLWHOQ XQG GHQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO VR
ZLH GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP XQG GLH 9HUVRUJXQJVVLWXDWLRQ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ
QlKHU HUOlXWHUQ EHYRU LFK GHQ (LQÀXVV GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWV
V\VWHP DQKDQG DXVJHZlKOWHU 3XQNWH GDUVWHOOHQ ZHUGH
6R ZDU HLQ =LHO GHU HLQJHIKUWHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ QHEHQ GHU $EVLFKHUXQJ LP
)DOOH HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW DXFK GLH 6LFKHUXQJ GHU KlXVOLFKHQ 3ÀHJH DOOHU KlXV
OLFKHQ 3ÀHJHOHLVWXQJHQ ZHUGHQ GHU]HLW YRQ 9HUZDQGWHQ HUEUDFKW 'DYRQ VLQG EHU )UDXHQ 9JO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 )UDXHQ VLQG HV DEHU DXFK GLH YHUPHKUW
LQ DQGHUH %XQGHVOlQGHU DXVZDQGHUQ XP EHVVHUH .DUULHUHFKDQFHQ ]X QXW]HQ +LQ]X NRP
PHQ GLH =XQDKPH NLQGHUORVHU 3DDUH XQG HLQH bQGHUXQJ GHU )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ G K GLH
(KH DOV ,QVWLWXWLRQ YHUOLHUW DQ %HGHXWXQJ ,VW NHLQ (KHSDUWQHU XQGRGHU .LQG YRUKDQGHQ
ZHOFKHV LP )DOOH HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW ]XU 9HUIJXQJ VWHKW PVVHQ 3ÀHJHGLHQVWH LQ
$QVSUXFK JHQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ 'LH VLFK lQGHUQGHQ )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ YHUODJHUQ GLH 8Q
WHUVWW]XQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ LP )DOOH HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW LQ GHQ DX‰HUIDPLOLlUHQ XQG
GDPLW PHLVW LQ GHQ SURIHVVLRQHOOHQ %HUHLFK 'LH $UEHLWVSODW]DEZDQGHUXQJ MXQJHU )UDXHQ
XQG GLH UFNOlX¿JHQ *HEXUWHQ]DKOHQ VHLW EHGLQJHQ UHJLRQDO XQJOHLFK YHUWHLOW HLQH
$EQDKPH SÀHJHQGHU )DPLOLHQDQJHK|ULJHU 2E GXUFK GLHVHQ 8PVWDQG YHUEXQGHQ PLW GHU
VWHWLJHQ =XQDKPH bOWHUHU LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ HLQ 3ÀHJHQRWVWDQG GURKW ZHUGH
LFK LP .DSLWHO HEHQVR XQWHUVXFKHQ ZLH GHQ WDWVlFKOLFKHQ (LQÀXVV GHU VLFK lQGHUQGHQ
)DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ
1
(LQOHLWXQJ
3UREOHPDWLVFK VWHOOW VLFK GHU ZDFKVHQGH )DFKNUlIWHPDQJHO LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ GDU 'HU
EHUHLWV UHJLRQDO HNODWDQWH bU]WHPDQJHO LP OlQGOLFKHQ 5DXP HUIRUGHUW VRIRUWLJH /|VXQJV
DQVlW]H ZHVKDOE $OWEHNDQQWHV ZLH GDV .RQ]HSW GHU Ä3ROLNOLQLN³ ZLHGHU ]X QHXHP /H
EHQ HUZHFNW ZLUG 6R VWHOOHQ LQ YLHOHQ 5HJLRQHQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQV EHUHLWV
EHVWHKHQGH *HVXQGKHLWVKlXVHU XQG 0HGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ HUVWH $QVlW]H GDU
GHU 0DQJHOYHUVRUJXQJ HQWJHJHQ ]X ZLUNHQ 'LH .RQ]HSWH GHV Ä0XOWLSOHQ +DXVHV³ XQG
GHU PRELOHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ Ä$*Q(6³$U]WHQWODVWHQGH *HPHLQGHQDKH (+HDOWKJHVWW]WH
6\VWHPLVFKH ,QWHUYHQWLRQ VROOHQ GLH PHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ OlQGOLFKHU *HPHLQGHQ
SHUVSHNWLYLVFK VLFKHUQ 'DV =LHO HLQHU HUUHLFKEDUHQ XQG JDQ]KHLWOLFKHQ %HWUHXXQJ GHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ VROO GDGXUFK JHZlKUOHLVWHW VHLQ 2E WDWVlFKOLFK YRQ HLQHP bU]WHPDQJHO LQ
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ JHVSURFKHQ ZHUGHQ NDQQ ZHUGH LFK HEHQIDOOV LQ .DSLWHO HUOlXWHUQ 8QWHU GHP 6WLFKZRUW Ä*HQHUDWLRQHQYHUWUDJ³ ZLUG WKHPDWLVLHUW YRU ZHOFKHQ
+HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ GLH VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH LQ =HLWHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQ
GHOV VWHKHQ
1HEHQ DOO GHQ 3UREOHPHQ E]Z +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ GLH GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO PLW
VLFK EULQJW VROOHQ DXFK GLH &KDQFHQ GLH PLW GLHVHP :DQGHO YHUEXQGHQ VLQG HUNDQQW
XQG JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ 'D]X ]lKOHQ X D GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DOV $UEHLWJHEHU XQG GLH
=XQDKPH JHLVWLJHU XQG N|USHUOLFKHU /HLVWXQJVIlKLJNHLW LP $OWHU GLH HLQH QHXH *UXSSH
GHU $OWHQ HQWVWHKHQ OlVVW GLH VR JHQDQQWHQ ÄMXQJHQ $OWHQ³ :HOFKH )ROJHQ XQG 3RWHQ]LD
OH VLFK GDUDXV HUJHEHQ XQG ZLH XQG RE GLHVH EHUHLWV JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ ZHUGH LFK HEHQIDOOV
DXVIKUOLFKHU EHWUDFKWHQ ,P =XJH GHVVHQ ZLUG GLH KlX¿J JHWURIIHQH $QQDKPH ÄDOW
EHGUIWLJ³ LQ )UDJH JHVWHOOW ZHUGHQ
,P DEVFKOLH‰HQGHQ 7HLO GHU $UEHLW EHIDVVH LFK PLFK PLW HLQHU $XVZDKO EHUHLWV GXUFK
JHIKUWHU 0RGHOOSURMHNWH XQG ±YRUKDEHQ XQG LKUHP ELVKHULJHQ :LUNXQJVJUDG XQG =X
NXQIWVSRWHQWLDO (LQ EHVRQGHUHU 6FKZHUSXQNW OLHJW GDEHL DXI $NWLRQVSURJUDPPHQ GLH LQ
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ XPJHVHW]W ZXUGHQZHUGHQ 6FKZHUSXQNW LVW HV KHUDXV]X¿Q
GHQ ZLH QDFKKDOWLJ GLH 3URJUDPPH VLQG XQG ZHOFKHU SUDNWLVFKH 1XW]HQ VLFK EHL GHQ 3UR
JUDPPEHWHLOLJWHQ HUJLEW 'LH NRQNUHWHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN DOV 5HDNWLRQ
DXI GHQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO ZHUGH LFK LQ GLHVHP =XVDPPHQKDQJ DXFK EHVFKUHLEHQ
G K ZHOFKH $XVZLUNXQJHQ HUJHEHQ VLFK EHLVSLHOVZHLVH GXUFK GDV *.90RGHUQLVLH
UXQJVJHVHW] GDV XQWHU DQGHUHP GLH (LQULFKWXQJ 0HGL]LQLVFKHU 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ HU
P|JOLFKWH
:HLWHUH $QSDVVXQJVLQLWLDWLYHQ GLH GLH )ROJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV UHJLRQDO PLO
GHUQ EHVWHQIDOOV VRJDU SRVLWLY DXVVFK|SIHQ ZHUGH LFK LP HEHQIDOOV YRUVWHOOHQ :DV 3ROLWLN
XQG *HVHOOVFKDIW QRFK WXQ N|QQHQ XP VLFK GHQ +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHOV NQIWLJ EHVVHU VWHOOHQ ]X N|QQHQ ZLUG LP 6LQQH YRQ +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
DEJHGHFNW
'HQ $EVFKOXVV ELOGHW HLQH =XVDPPHQIDVVXQJ GHU GDUJHOHJWHQ (UNHQQWQLVVH
2
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
„Deutschland ist das mit Abstand bevölkerungsreichste Land der Europäischen Union.
Seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ist die Zahl der Einwohner von damals 68 Millionen
auf mittlerweile 83 Millionen angewachsen. Warum also sollte man sich um die deutsche
Bevölkerungsentwicklung Sorgen machen?“ .U|KQHUW HW DO 6 $XFK ZHQQ GLH %HY|ONHUXQJV]DKO LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ]XP (QGH GHV -DKUHV DXI
(LQZRKQHU JHVXQNHQ LVW HUVFKHLQW GLH )UDJH LP HUVWHQ 0RPHQW GXUFKDXV EH
UHFKWLJW ]X VHLQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 6 :DV GDEHL DOOHUGLQJV QLFKW
EHDFKWHW ZXUGH XQG ZRUDXI .U|KQHUW HW DO LQ LKUHQ $XVIKUXQJHQ QRFK JHQDXHU HLQJHKHQ
VLQG GLH $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV GLH OlQJHUIULVWLJH )ROJHQ X D DXI
GLH %HY|ONHUXQJV]XVDPPHQVHW]XQJ XQG ±HQWZLFNOXQJ KDEHQ ZHUGHQ
'HU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO ZLUG JURE ]XVDPPHQJHIDVVW DOV GLH =XQDKPH GHU $OWHUVSR
SXODWLRQ DXIJUXQG VWHLJHQGHU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ XQG DEQHKPHQGHU *HEXUWHQUDWHQ EHL
JOHLFK]HLWLJHU $EQDKPH GHU *HVDPWEHY|ONHUXQJ EHVFKULHEHQ )U HLQH XPIDVVHQGH %H
WUDFKWXQJ VROOWH GDV (OHPHQW GHU 0LJUDWLRQ PLW HLQEH]RJHQ ZHUGHQ ZHOFKHV VLFK HQW
ZHGHU SRVLWLY RGHU DXFK QHJDWLY DXI GLH %HY|ONHUXQJV]DKO DXVZLUNHQ NDQQ 1LFKW QXU
:DQGHUXQJVEHZHJXQJHQ LQV $XVODQG VRQGHUQ DXFK %LQQHQZDQGHUXQJHQ VLQG YRQ %H
GHXWXQJ 'LHVH (OHPHQWH GHV :DQGHOV ZHUGHQ DOV VROFKH DXFK LQ GHU 'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH
GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ EHVFKULHEHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'LH GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ (LQÀXVVIDNWRUHQ KDEHQ VLFK LQ 0LWWHOHXURSD LQ GHQ YHUJDQJHQHQ -DKUHQ VHKU VWDUN YHUVFKREHQ NRQQWHQ DOV 8UVDFKH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV KLVWRULVFK
YRU DOOHP SROLWLVFKH (UHLJQLVVH LQVEHVRQGHUH .ULHJH XQG GDPLW HLQKHUJHKHQGH *HEXUWHQ
DXVIlOOH XQG .ULHJVRSIHU EHQDQQW ZHUGHQ QDKP ]XQHKPHQG GHU PHGL]LQLVFKHWHFKQL
VFKH )RUWVFKULWW GHU VRZRKO IU GLH /HEHQVYHUOlQJHUXQJ DOV DXFK (PSIlQJQLVYHUKWXQJ
XUVlFKOLFK LVW DXI GLH 9HUlQGHUXQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJV]DKOHQ (LQÀXVV 6FKOLH‰OLFK VLQG HV
KHXWH KDXSWVlFKOLFK GLH YHUlQGHUWHQ VR]LDOHQ XQG ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ 5DKPHQEHGLQJXQJHQ
GLH HLQH bQGHUXQJ GHV NODVVLVFKHQ 5ROOHQPRGHOOV XQG GHU $N]HSWDQ] GHU )UDXHQHUZHUEV
WlWLJNHLW EHGLQJHQ XQG :DQGHUXQJHQ LQV $XVODQG 9JO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 'LH GDUDXV DEOHLWEDUHQ .HUQHOHPHQWH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV ZHUGHQ DQVFKOLH‰HQG
JHQDXHU EHVFKULHEHQ HEHQVR ZLH GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ XQG ±SURJQRVH LQ XQG IU
'HXWVFKODQG
.HUQHOHPHQWH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV
/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ
„Sowohl in Ost- als auch in Westdeutschland hat sich die Lebenserwartung seit Mitte der
1980er Jahre kontinuierlich erhöht.“ %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 3
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
*UQGH IU GLH JHVWLHJHQH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ OLHJHQ YRU DOOHP EHLP PHGL]LQLVFKWHFKQL
VFKHQ )RUWVFKULWW DEHU DXFK GHQ YHUEHVVHUWHQ $UEHLWV XQG /HEHQVEHGLQJXQJHQ VRZLH GHU
EHVVHUHQ +\JLHQH XQG EHZXVVWHUHQ (UQlKUXQJ (LQ 9HUJOHLFK GHU 6WHUEOLFKNHLWVQLYHDXV
GHU OHW]WHQ -DKUH ]HLJW GHXWOLFK GHQ HQRUPHQ =XJHZLQQ DQ /HEHQVMDKUHQ ,Q GHQ -DK
UHQ ZXUGH HLQ QHXJHERUHQHU -XQJH LQ 'HXWVFKODQG GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK -DKUH
DOW XQG HLQ 0lGFKHQ -DKUH DOW „Die durchschnittliche Lebenserwartung zeigt hierbei, wie viele Lebensjahre neugeborene männliche oder weibliche Kinder zu erwarten
hätten, wenn das zu einem Zeitpunkt beobachtete Sterberisiko der Bevölkerung in den
einzelnen Altersjahren während ihres ganzen Lebens erhalten bliebe“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQ
GHVDPW 6 I 'LH 1DFKYHUIROJXQJ GHU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ ZLUG VHLW *UQGXQJ
GHV 'HXWVFKHQ 5HLFKHV GXUFK 3HULRGHQVWHUEHWDIHOQ1 YHUGHXWOLFKW 'LHVH HUP|JOLFKHQ
DXFK GLH ZHLWHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ GLH GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFKH IHUQHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ HL
QHU 3HUVRQ ]X EHVWLPPHQ G K ZLH DOW ZLUG HLQ KHXWH -lKULJHU GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK QRFK
9HUULQJHUWH VLFK ]XP (QGH GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV ]XQlFKVW GLH 6lXJOLQJV XQG .LQGHUVWHUE
OLFKNHLW IROJWH LP -K GLH 6WHUEOLFKNHLW GHU lOWHUHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ YRU DOOHP DXIJUXQG
GHV PHGL]LQLVFKWHFKQLVFKHQ )RUWVFKULWWV
%HWUDFKWHW PDQ GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ VR KDW VLFK GLHVH LP 'XUFKVFKQLWW
IDVW YHUGRSSHOW „Allein im 20. Jahrhundert stieg die Lebenserwartung in Deutschland
um etwa 30 Jahre.“ 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 ZXUGHQ GHU 0lQ
QHU PLQGHVWHQV -DKUH XQG GLH )UDXHQ -DKUH DOW 'DV $OWHU YRQ -DKUHQ HUUHLFKWHQ
GDPDOV FD GHU 0lQQHU XQG GHU )UDXHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6
I6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 I =X %HJLQQ GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV KDEHQ GDQQ
EHUHLWV GHU 0lQQHU XQG GHU )UDXHQ GDV /HEHQVMDKU HUUHLFKW YJO 6WDWLVWL
VFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 ,Q GHQ -DKUHQ ODJ GLH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ HLQHV
QHXJHERUHQHQ -XQJHQ EHL -DKUHQ XQG GLH HLQHV 0lGFKHQV EHL -DKUHQ 'LH
IHUQHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ HLQHV -lKULJHQ ODJ EHL ZHLWHUHQ -DKUHQ XQG GLH HLQHU
JOHLFKDOWULJHQ )UDX EHL HWZDV EHU -DKUHQ VLHKH 7DEHOOH 'LH 7DEHOOH YHUGHXWOLFKW
DXFK GDVV 0HQVFKHQ GLH EHUHLWV KHXWH GDV /HEHQVMDKU HUUHLFKW KDEHQ ODXW 6WDWLV
WLVFKHP %XQGHVDPW GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK QRFK PLW ZHLWHUHQ -DKUHQ UHFKQHQ N|QQHQ (V
ZHUGHQ YRU DOOHP =XJHZLQQH EHL GHU lOWHUHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ VHLQ
1 „Die Periodensterbetafeln der amtlichen Statistik basieren auf den Daten über die Gestorbenen und die
'XUFKVFKQLWWVEHY|ONHUXQJ GHU OHW]WHQ GUHL -DKUH (LQH 6WHUEHWDIHO LVW HLQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHV 0RGHOO GDV GLH
zusammenfassende Beurteilung der Sterblichkeitsverhältnisse einer Bevölkerung unabhängig von ihrer
Größe und Altersstruktur ermöglicht.“ KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW%H
YRHONHUXQJ6WHUEHIDHOOH$NWXHOO3HULRGHQVWHUEHWDIHOQKWPO"QQ 4
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
Sterbetafel
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
$OWHU 0lQQHU
Frauen
76,89
82,25
57,49
62,72
38,2
43,08
20,75
24,61
16,93
20,31
7,56
8,92
77,17
82,4
57,74
62,85
38,44
43,2
20,93
24,71
17,11
20,41
7,65
8,97
77,33
82,53
57,9
62,97
38,59
43,32
21,04
24,81
17,22
20,52
7,67
9,04
77,51
82,59
58,05
63,03
38,73
43,37
21,16
24,85
17,33
20,56
7,71
9,06
7DEHOOH 'XUFKVFKQLWWOLFKH XQG IHUQHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ QDFK DXVJHZlKOWHQ $O
WHUVVWXIHQ YJO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW%HYRHO
NHUXQJ*HEXUWHQ7DEHOOHQ/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ'HXWVFKODQGKWPO HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
„Ein 2012 in Deutschland geborenes Baby wird mit mindestens 50-prozentiger Wahrscheinlichkeit hundert Jahre alt.“ 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 'DV 6WDWLVWLVFKH %XQ
GHVDPW JHKW DXFK LQ GHQ QlFKVWHQ -DKUHQ YRQ HLQHU VWHLJHQGHQ /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ DXV
ZHQQ DXFK ODQJVDPHU DOV LQ GHQ 9RUMDKUHQ (V ZHUGHQ DOOHUGLQJV PHKU /HEHQVMDKUH LP
K|KHUHQ $OWHU KLQ]XJHZRQQHQ XQG GLH 8QWHUVFKLHGH ]ZLVFKHQ GHQ *HVFKOHFKWHUQ ZHUGHQ
VLFK YHUULQJHUQ
,P -DKU ZHUGHQ FD GHU 'HXWVFKHQ EHU -DKUH DOW VHLQ „[…] und es werden
doppelt so viele 70-Jährige leben, wie Kinder geboren werden.“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHV
DPW 6 'LH =DKO GHU EHU -lKULJHQ ZLUG ELV DXI 0LOOLRQHQ VWHLJHQ
ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ -DKUH RGHU lOWHU VLQG =XP 9HUJOHLFK LP -DKU
EHWUXJ LKUH =DKO FD 0LOOLRQHQ
Ϯϱ͘ϬϬϬ
Ϯϯ͘ϳϬϵ
Ϯϰ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϮ͘ϵϴϵ
Anzahl in 1000
Ϯϯ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϮ͘Ϯϳϱ
Ϯϭ͘ϵϳϱ
ϮϮ͘ϬϬϬ
Ϯϭ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϴ͘ϲϱϰ
ϭϵ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϴ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϳ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϲ͘ϳϮϵ
ϭϲ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϱ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϬϬϴ
ϮϬϮϬ
ϮϬϯϬ
ϮϬϰϬ
ϮϬϱϬ
ϮϬϲϬ
Jahre
$EELOGXQJ -lKULJH XQG bOWHUH ELV YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW
6 HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
5
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
9RU DOOHP GHU $QVWLHJ GHU 0HQVFKHQ EHU -DKUH LVW IU GLH GHPRJUD¿VFKH (QWZLFN
OXQJ YRQ EHVRQGHUHU %HGHXWXQJ GD VLFK GDGXUFK LQ 9HUELQGXQJ PLW GHU $EQDKPH GHU
*HEXUWHQKlX¿JNHLW GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ NRPSOHWW YHUlQGHUW YJO %DFNHV
&OHPHQV 6 I
*HEXUWHQKlX¿JNHLW
„Die bislang letzte Generation in Deutschland, die so viele Kinder bekam, dass die Zahl
der Eltern bzw. das „Bestandserhaltungsniveau“ erreicht wurde, erblickte vor über 130
Jahren das Licht der Welt.“ $3X= (GLWRULDO
=ZHL GHU HQWVFKLHGHQVWHQ $Q]HLJHU IU GDV *HEXUWHQYHUKDOWHQ VLQG GDV $OWHU GHU 0XWWHU
XQG GLH $Q]DKO GHU JHERUHQHQ .LQGHU )UDXHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG EHNRPPHQ LP 'XUFKVFKQLWW
PLW -DKUHQ LKU HUVWHV .LQG 6WDQG $XFK ZHQQ VLFK GLH *HEXUWHQ]DKOHQ XQG
GDV $OWHU GHU 0WWHU ]ZLVFKHQ DOWHQ XQG QHXHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ PLWWOHUZHLOH IDVW DQJH
JOLFKHQ KDEHQ VLQG GHQQRFK 8QWHUVFKLHGH IHVW]XVWHOOHQ 6R VWLHJ YRQ ELV GDV
$OWHU GHU 0WWHU LQ GHQ QHXHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ XP -DKUH DXI -DKUH ,P :HVWHQ OLHJW
GLHVHV EHL -DKUHQ XQG GHU $QVWLHJ LP VHOEHQ =HLWUDXP ODJ EHL -DKUHQ 6HLW LVW HLQH =XQDKPH GHU )HUWLOLWlWVUDWH ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ DXFK ZHQQ GLHVH VHKU PRGHUDW YHU
OlXIW 5HODWLY NRQVWDQW HUZHLVHQ VLFK GLH *HEXUWHQ]DKOHQ DXVOlQGLVFKHU )UDXHQ ]ZLVFKHQ
XQG FD .LQGHU EHL HLQHP 'XUFKVFKQLWWVDOWHU GHU 0XWWHU YRQ -DKUHQ (LQ
5FNJDQJ LVW KLHU QXU EHL GHQ XQWHU -lKULJHQ ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ 9JO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQ
GHVDPW 6 =XU (UKDOWXQJ GHV %HVWDQGVQLYHDXV LVW HLQH )HUWLOLWlWVUDWH YRQ SUR )UDX HUIRUGHUOLFK
'LHVH ZXUGH ZLH GDV =LWDW ZHLWHU REHQ HUOlXWHUW ]XOHW]W YRU -DKUHQ HUUHLFKW ZDV HLQ
*UXQG IU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVDEQDKPH LVW YRU DOOHP ZHQQ NHLQH .RPSHQVDWLRQ GXUFK
=XZDQGHUXQJHQ ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ LVW YJO .U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6 (LQ 9HUJOHLFK GHU *HEXUWHQMDKUJlQJH ELV YHUGHXWOLFKW GHQ 5FNJDQJ GHU *H
EXUWHQ EHU GLH -DKU]HKQWH *HEXUWHQMDKUJDQJ GHU 0XWWHU
‡ .LQGHU SUR )UDX
‡ 1949: 1,79,
‡ 1959: 1,60,
‡ ELV ]XP /HEHQVMDKU EUDFKWH GLHVHU -DKUJDQJ .LQGHU ]XU :HOW (LQ
ZHVHQWOLFKHU $QVWLHJ ZLUG QLFKW YHUPXWHW
‡ QXU ZHQQ )UDXHQ GLH MHW]W 0LWWH VLQG PHKU .LQGHU EHNRPPHQ DOV ELVKHU
NDQQ GLH .LQGHU]DKO GHU HU .RKRUWH HU]LHOW ZHUGHQ 9JO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHV
DPW 6 :HUGHQ ZHQLJHU .LQGHU JHERUHQ EHGHXWHW GLHV ]ZDQJVOlX¿J
GDVV ZHQLJHU SRWHQWLHOOH (OWHUQ YRUKDQGHQ VLQG
'LH )DNWRUHQ GLH HLQHQ (LQÀXVV DXI GDV *HEXUWHQYHUKDOWHQ KDEHQ VLQG YLHOIlOWLJ 'D]X
6
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
]lKOHQ LQVEHVRQGHUH ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKH LQIUDVWUXNWXUHOOH NXOWXUHOOH XQG VR]LDOH *U|‰HQ
+HXW]XWDJH HQWVFKHLGHQ VLFK GLH PHLVWHQ )UDXHQ EHZXVVW VSlWHU IU .LQGHU E]Z EOHL
EHQ NLQGHUORV 'LH 3ODQEDUNHLW GHU )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ ZXUGH LQ 'HXWVFKODQG HUP|JOLFKW
GXUFK GLH (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3LOOH LQ GHU %5' XQG LQ GHU ''5 )UDXHQ ZXUGH HV
GDGXUFK HUP|JOLFKW EHZXVVW ]X HQWVFKHLGHQ ZDQQ VLH HLQ .LQG EHNRPPHQ ZROOHQ 'LH
JOHLFK]HLWLJH (PDQ]LSDWLRQ GHU )UDX XQG GHU HUOHLFKWHUWH =XJDQJ ]X K|KHUHQ %LOGXQJVDE
VFKOVVHQ YHUOlQJHUWH GLH %LOGXQJVELRJUD¿H XQG YHUXUVDFKWH ]XPHLVW HLQH 5FNVWHOOXQJ
GHU )DPLOLHQSODQXQJ „Je höher der Bildungsstand, desto weniger Kinder hat eine Frau
geboren.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 :HVWGHXWVFKH )UDXHQ JHERUHQ
]ZLVFKHQ XQG RKQH 6FKXODEVFKOXVV KDEHQ GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK .LQGHU GLH
MHQLJHQ PLW +DXSWVFKXODEVFKOXVV .LQGHU GLH PLW 5HDOVFKXODEVFKOXVV XQG )UDX
HQ PLW +RFKVFKXOUHLIH .LQGHU $XIIlOOLJ LVW GLH .LQGHUORVLJNHLW EHL $NDGHPLNHULQQHQ
YJO 6FKQHLGHU'RUELW] 6 II 'LH 8UVDFKH GDIU OLHJW LPPHU QRFK LQ
GHU 6FKZLHULJNHLW )DPLOLH XQG %HUXI ]X YHUHLQEDUHQ )UDXHQ K|KHUHU %LOGXQJ HQWVFKHLGHQ
VLFK GDKHU KlX¿JHU IU LKUH .DUULHUH
'LH *HEXUWHQNRQWUROOH XQG GHU 3UR]HVV GHU ,QGLYLGXDOLVLHUXQJ GDV EHGHXWHW ]XP HLQHQ
GLH $XÀ|VXQJ WUDGLWLRQHOOHU %H]JH 'HLQVWLWXWLRQDOLVLHUXQJ GHU (KH bQGHUXQJ GHU (U
ZHUEVELRJUD¿H HWF XQG ]XP DQGHUHQ GLH (UZHLWHUXQJ LQGLYLGXHOOHU *HVWDOWXQJVP|JOLFK
NHLWHQ HUK|KHQ GLH &KDQFHQ GDV /HEHQ QDFK HLJHQHQ :QVFKHQ ]X JHVWDOWHQ IKUHQ DEHU
DXFK ]X HLQHU 0HKUXQJ YRQ 8QVLFKHUKHLWHQ XQG bQJVWHQ ZDV QLFKW RKQH )ROJHQ IU GDV
)HUWLOLWlWVQLYHDX EOHLEW
'DUEHU KLQDXV ZDQGHOWH VLFK GDV %LOG GHV .LQGHV LQ GHQ OHW]WHQ EHLGHQ -DKUKXQGHUWHQ
/HLVWHWHQ .LQGHU ]XP (QGH GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV YRU DOOHP HLQHQ DNWLYHQ %HLWUDJ ]XP
)DPLOLHQHLQNRPPHQ X D GXUFK :HLWHUIKUXQJ GHV )DPLOLHQEHWULHEHV ZXFKV LKU HPR
WLRQDOHU :HUW LP OHW]WHQ -DKUKXQGHUW HQRUP 'LHVH (QWZLFNOXQJ ZXUGH JHI|UGHUW GXUFK
(LQIKUXQJ VR]LDOHU 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH GLH .LQGHU DOV 9HUVRUJHU GHU )DPLOLH EHUÀVVLJ
PDFKWHQ $OV )ROJH EHNDPHQ )UDXHQ .LQGHU ZHLO VLH JHZROOW ZDUHQ XQG QLFKW ZHLO VLH
JHEUDXFKW ZXUGHQ
(LQ ZHLWHUHV ,QGL] IU GLH $XÀ|VXQJ WUDGLWLRQHOOHU %H]JH LVW GHU 9HUJOHLFK GHU DX‰HUHKH
OLFKHQ *HEXUWHQ ]ZLVFKHQ DOWHQ XQG QHXHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ +LHULQ VSLHJHOW VLFK GHU %H
GHXWXQJVYHUOXVW GHU (KH DOV ,QVWLWXWLRQ ZLGHU 'LH JHQDXHQ 8UVDFKHQ GHV +HLUDWVYHUKDO
WHQV VLQG YLHOIlOWLJ HV NDQQ MHGRFK DQJHQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ GDVV GLH JHZRQQHQHQ )UHLKHLWHQ
XQG 0|JOLFKNHLWHQ GHU LQGLYLGXHOOHQ /HEHQVIKUXQJ DWWUDNWLYHU ZLUNHQ DOV GLH (KH 'LH
¿QDQ]LHOOH 8QDEKlQJLJNHLW GHU )UDX PDJ KLHU]X HEHQIDOOV EHLWUDJHQ /DXW 6FKQHLGHU'RU
ELW] 6 ZXUGHQ LP -DKU LP :HVWHQ GHU .LQGHU DX‰HUHKHOLFK JH
ERUHQ ZRKLQJHJHQ HV LP 2VWHQ GHU 5HSXEOLN ZDUHQ %XQGHVZHLW ZXUGHQ LP -DKU
GHU .LQGHU DX‰HUHKHOLFK JHERUHQ ,P -DKU ZDUHQ HV OHGLJOLFK YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 6 'LH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU (KHVFKOLH‰XQJHQ XQG
DX‰HUHKHOLFKHQ *HEXUWHQ ZLUG LQ $EELOGXQJ QDFKJH]HLFKQHW
7
Anzahl
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
ϭ͘ϯϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϮϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϮϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϭϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϭϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϬϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭ͘ϬϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϵϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϵϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϴϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϴϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϳϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϳϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϲϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϲϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϰϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϰϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϯϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϯϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϵϱϬ
ϭϵϲϬ
ϭϵϳϬ
ϭϵϴϬ
ϭϵϵϬ
ϮϬϬϬ
ϮϬϬϭ
ϮϬϬϮ
ϮϬϬϯ
ϮϬϬϰ
ϮϬϬϱ
ϮϬϬϲ
ϮϬϬϳ
ϮϬϬϴ
ϮϬϬϵ
Jahr
ŚĞƐĐŚůŝĞƘƵŶŐĞŶ
>ĞďĞŶĚŐĞďŽƌĞŶĞ
ŶŝĐŚƚĞŚĞůŝĐŚ
$EELOGXQJ (KHVFKOLH‰XQJHQ XQG DX‰HUHKHOLFKH .LQGHU YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 6 HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
1LFKW QXU GLH $Q]DKO DX‰HUHKHOLFKHU .LQGHU XQWHUVFKHLGHW VLFK ]ZLVFKHQ 2VW XQG :HVW
GHXWVFKODQG DXFK GLH JHQHUHOOH .LQGHU]DKO YDULLHUW ,P 2VWHQ 'HXWVFKODQGV GRPLQLHUHQ
)DPLOLHQ PLW HLQHP RGHU ]ZHL .LQGHUQ ZRKLQJHJHQ .LQGHUORVLJNHLW XQG PHKU DOV GUHL
.LQGHU VHOWHQHU VLQG )UDXHQ RKQH 3DUWQHU KDEHQ LP 2VWHQ HEHQIDOOV PHKU .LQGHU DOV )UDXHQ LP :HVWHQ 'UHL XQG PHKU .LQGHU ZHUGHQ YRU DOOHP LP :HVWHQ YRQ YHU
KHLUDWHWHQ )UDXHQ JHERUHQ %H]LHKXQJHQ RKQH 7UDXVFKHLQ VLQG LP :HVWHQ GDJHJHQ VHKU
YLHO KlX¿JHU YRQ .LQGHUORVLJNHLW JHSUlJW GHU QLFKW YHUKHLUDWHWHQ )UDXHQ VLQG NLQ
GHUORV DOV LP 2VWHQ MHGH IQIWH QLFKW YHUKHLUDWHWH )UDX KDW NHLQH .LQGHU 9JO 6FKQHL
GHU'RUEULW] 6 I *UQGH IU GLH K|KHUH )HUWLOLWlW LP 2VWHQ ZHUGHQ PHLVW PLW
GHP 1DFKZLUNHQ GHU ''56R]LDOLVDWLRQ XQG GHQ GDPDOV YRUKHUUVFKHQGHQ IDPLOLHQSR
OLWLVFKHQ %HGLQJXQJHQ ] % 8QWHUVWW]XQJ DOOHLQVWHKHQGHU )UDXHQ HUNOlUW )UDXHQ LP
2VWHQ VLQG GDUEHU KLQDXV HKHU EHUHLW .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJVDQJHERWH ]X QXW]HQ DOV ZHVW
GHXWVFKH )UDXHQ ZDV DXFK LP 8QWHUVFKLHG GHU 9ROO XQG 7HLO]HLWEHVFKlIWLJXQJHQ ]XP
$XVGUXFN NRPPW ,P :HVWHQ VLQG YRU DOOHP )UDXHQ GLH 9ROO]HLW DUEHLWHQ NLQGHUORV 'LH
WUDGLWLRQHOOH 5ROOHQYHUWHLOXQJ G K GHU 0DQQ DUEHLWHW 9ROO]HLW XQG GLH )UDX JDU QLFKW RGHU
7HLO]HLW NRUUHVSRQGLHUHQ PLW HLQHU KRKHQ .LQGHU]DKO GUHL XQG PHKU 'LH )RUP GHU (U
ZHUEVWlWLJNHLW KDW LQ 2VWGHXWVFKODQG NDXP HLQHQ (LQÀXVV DXI GLH .LQGHUORVLJNHLW :HVW
GHXWVFKH )UDXHQ KDEHQ $QJVW DOV Ä5DEHQPXWWHU³ EH]HLFKQHW ]X ZHUGHQ ZHQQ VLH VLFK
QLFKW VHOEVW XP LKUH .LQGHU NPPHUQ (V NDQQ ]XVDPPHQJHIDVVW ZHUGHQ GDVV LP 2VWHQ
„[…]Einstellungsbündel, in dem die Vereinbarung von Familie und Erwerbstätigkeit, die
dazugehörende Akzeptanz der außerhäuslichen Kinderbetreuung und die Befürwortung
egalitärer Geschlechterrollen viel prägnanter angelegt sind als in Westdeutschland.“
6FKQHLGHU'RUEULW] 6 8
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH NRRUGLQLHUWH %HY|ONHUXQJVSURJQRVH JHKW YRQ HLQHP ZHLWHUHQ $QVWLHJ GHV *H
EXUWVDOWHUV GHU )UDXHQ DXV XQG GLH .LQGHU]DKO DXFK LQ GHQ QlFKVWHQ -DKUHQ QLFKW GHQ
:HUW YRQ HUUHLFKHQ ZLUG GHU HUIRUGHUOLFK ZlUH XP GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVDQ]DKO ]X KDOWHQ
1LFKW DE]XVHKHQ LVW ZLH SROLWLVFKH (LQJULIIH ZLH ] % GLH (LQIKUXQJ GHV (OWHUQJHOGHV
RGHU GHU $XVEDX GHU .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ EHHLQÀXVVHQG ZLUNHQ
:DQGHUXQJHQ0LJUDWLRQ
„[…] ohne Zuwanderungen wäre die Bevölkerung in Deutschland bereits seit Beginn der
1970er-Jahre zurückgegangen.“ 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 1LFKW QXU GLH $Q]DKO GHU *HEXUWHQ RGHU GDV 6WHUEOLFKNHLWVQLYHDX QDWUOLFKH %HY|O
NHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ EHHLQÀXVVHQ GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG DXFK
:DQGHUXQJHQ VLQG YRQ HQWVFKHLGHQGHU %HGHXWXQJ
:DQGHUXQJHQ ODVVHQ VLFK LQ $X‰HQ :DQGHUXQJHQ YRQ XQG QDFK 'HXWVFKODQG XQG
%LQQHQZDQGHUXQJHQ :DQGHUXQJHQ LQQHUKDOE 'HXWVFKODQGV XQWHUVFKHLGHQ %HL GHQ
$X‰HQZDQGHUXQJHQ LVW GHU :DQGHUXQJVVDOGR GLH 'LIIHUHQ] ]ZLVFKHQ =X XQG )RUW]
JHQ IU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ HQWVFKHLGHQG 'LH $WWUDNWLYLWlW YRQ 'HXWVFKODQG
DOV (LQZDQGHUXQJVODQG KlQJW YRQ YLHOHQ )DNWRUHQ DE X D GHU 0LJUDWLRQVSROLWLN GHQ
ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ %HGLQJXQJHQ DEHU DXFK GHQ /HEHQVEHGLQJXQJHQ LQ GHQ +HUNXQIWV XQG
=LHOOlQGHUQ „Darunter genießen jeweils das Rechtssystem, das Regierungshandeln, die
Verfassung sowie der Arbeitsmarkt, die soziale Sicherung und die materielle wie die immaterielle Infrastruktur (etwa im Bildungs- oder Gesundheitsbereich) besondere Aufmerksamkeit.“ YRQ /RHIIHOKRO] 6 1DFK GHP =ZHLWHQ :HOWNULHJ ZDU 'HXWVFK
ODQG HLQHV GHU EHOLHEWHVWHQ (LQZDQGHUXQJVOlQGHU 'LH HU XQG HU -DKUH ZDUHQ JHSUlJW
YRQ GHU =XZDQGHUXQJ YRQ *DVWDUEHLWHUQ ,Q GHQ IROJHQGHQ -DKUHQ IROJWHQ GHUHQ )D
PLOLHQ 'LH HU IKUWHQ ]X YHUPHKUWHQ (LQZDQGHUXQJHQ YRQ 6SlWDXVVLHGOHUQ )OFKWOLQ
JHQ RGHU $V\OVXFKHQGHQ 8QWHU GHQ FD 0LOOLRQHQ (LQZDQGHUHUQ GLH ]ZLVFKHQ XQG QDFK 'HXWVFKODQG NDPHQ ZDUHQ 0LOOLRQHQ 'HXWVFKH 'DEHL PXVV EHDFKWHW
ZHUGHQ GDVV 6SlWDXVVLHGOHU HEHQIDOOV DOV VROFKH DQJHVHKHQ ZHUGHQ 0LWWOHUZHLOH EHWUlJW
GHU $QWHLO GHU 3HUVRQHQ PLW 0LJUDWLRQVKLQWHUJUXQG FD 0LOOLRQHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG YJO
.U|KQHUW HW DO 6 $XIIDOOHQG LVW GDVV VHLW GLH $Q]DKO 'HXWVFKHU $XV
ZDQGHUHU VWHLJW YRQ FD ]X LP -DKU 'HU W\SLVFKH GHXWVFKH
$XVZDQGHUHU LVW PlQQOLFK LQ VHLQHQ HUQ EHVLW]W HLQHQ +RFKVFKXODEVFKOXVV XQG ZDU
EHUHLWV DOV :LVVHQVFKDIWOHU RGHU )KUXQJVNUDIW DQJHVWHOOW (V NDQQ DEHU QLFKW YRQ HLQHP
ÄEUDLQ GUDLQ³ JHVSURFKHQ ZHUGHQ GD VLFK %LOGXQJVVWDWXV XQG EHUXÀLFKH 4XDOL¿NDWLRQ GHU
=X XQG $XVZDQGHUHU LQ HWZD HQWVSUHFKHQ 9JO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6
II
/DXW 6WDWLVWLVFKHP %XQGHVDPW LVW LP )DOOH GHU 0LJUDWLRQ NHLQ ZLUNOLFKHU 7UHQG DEOHLWEDU
GD YLHOH )DNWRUHQ ZLUNHQ XQG ] % (LQZDQGHUXQJVEHVFKUlQNXQJHQ RGHU *UHHQ&DUG 3UR
JUDPPH HLQÀXVVQHKPHQG VLQG hEHU GHU =X XQG $EZDQGHUXQJHQ HQWIDOOHQ DXI DXV
9
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
OlQGLVFKH 6WDDWVEUJHU ,Q GHQ -DKUHQ ODJ GHU :DQGHUXQJVVDOGR EHL XQG LQ GHQ -DKUHQ EHL 1HJDWLYH 6DOGL NDPHQ QXU LQ GHQ -DKUHQ XQG YRU YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 I%XQGHV
PLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'LH OHW]WHQ -DKUH YHUGHXWOLFKHQ GLH $EQDKPH GHV
6DOGRV ZDV DXI GLH VWHLJHQGH $Q]DKO GHXWVFKHU $XVZDQGHUHU XQG GHQ 5FNJDQJ DXVOlQ
GLVFKHU (LQZDQGHUHU ]XUFN]XIKUHQ LVW
%LV ]XP -DKU ZHUGHQ ]ZLVFKHQ XQG 0LOOLRQHQ 0HQVFKHQ HLQZDQGHUQ ZREHL
GDYRQ DXVJHJDQJHQ ZLUG GDVV GLH *HVFKOHFKWV XQG $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU (LQ XQG $XVZDQ
GHUHU GHQ ELVKHULJHQ :DQGHUXQJHQ HQWVSUHFKHQ +LHU NDQQ IHVWJHVWHOOW ZHUGHQ GDVV GLH
=X]LHKHQGHQ MQJHU VLQG DOV GLH )RUW]LHKHQGHQ ZDV VLFK SRVLWLY DXI GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU
GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ DXVZLUNW „Die Höhe der Fortzüge bleibt in der Regel über Jahrzehnte
UHODWLY NRQVWDQW VR GDVV PDQ YRQ HLQHU 6RFNHOZDQGHUXQJ VSULFKW 'LHVH ¿QGHW XQDEKlQgig von der Höhe des Wanderungssaldos immer statt.“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 9RU DOOHP QDFK GHU :HQGH YHU]HLFKQHWHQ GLH RVWGHXWVFKHQ %XQGHVOlQGHU HLQHQ UDSLGHQ
%HY|ONHUXQJVVFKZXQG GXUFK $EZDQGHUXQJHQ LQ GLH DOWHQ %XQGHVOlQGHU ZHOFKHU VLFK LP
)RUWODXI GHU -DKUH ZLHGHU YHUULQJHUWH 'HQQRFK VLQG GLH $XVZLUNXQJHQ JUDYLHUHQG GD ]X
PHLVW MXQJH /HXWH DXVZDQGHUQ ZDV GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GDV 'XUFKVFKQLWWVDOWHU XQG GLH *H
EXUWHQ]LIIHUQ EHHLQÀXVVW ]RJHQ 0HQVFKHQ LQ GLH DOWHQ %XQGHVOlQGHU ZDUHQ )RUW]JH DEHU QXU =X]JH ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ 'LHVH 'LIIHUHQ] YHU
JU|‰HUW VLFK LP -DKU QRFK GD KLHU 0HQVFKHQ IRUW]LHKHQ DEHU QXU KLQ]XNRPPHQ 9JO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 „In den neuen Bundesländern
ist ein besonders starker Rückgang der Fertilität in den weniger verdichteten Regionen
beobachtbar: Dort wird der Alterungsprozess der Bevölkerung mittelfristig am stärksten
HLQWUHWHQ PLW .RQVHTXHQ]HQ LQVEHVRQGHUH IU GLH %HUHLWVWHOOXQJ HLQHU DOWHUVVSH]L¿VFKHQ
Infrastruktur.“ 9JO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 (V PXVV GDUDXI KLQJHZLHVHQ ZHUGHQ GDVV %HY|ONHUXQJVSURJQRVHQ NHLQHQ HQGJOWLJHQ
&KDUDNWHU KDEHQ GD VLH DXI )RUWVFKUHLEXQJHQ ELVKHULJHU (QWZLFNOXQJHQ ]XU )HUWLOLWlW
0RUWDOLWlW XQG 0LJUDWLRQ EHUXKHQ XQG XQYRUKHUVHKEDUH (UHLJQLVVH RGHU DXFK HLQÀXVVQHK
PHQGH SROLWLVFKH (QWVFKHLGXQJHQ QLFKW DQWL]LSLHUW ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ
'DV 6WDWLVWLVFKH %XQGHVDPW JHKW EHL VHLQHQ 3URJQRVHQ YRQ ]ZHL 9DULDQWHQ DXV GLH MH
ZHLOV DOV 8QWHUJUHQ]H RGHU 2EHUJUHQ]H GHU ÄPLWWOHUHQ³ %HY|ONHUXQJ EH]HLFKQHW ZHUGHQ
'LH $QQDKPHQ GLHVHU 9DULDQWHQ JHKHQ YRQ HLQHU JOHLFKEOHLEHQGHQ )HUWLOLWlW HLQHP $Q
VWLHJ GHU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ YRQ DFKW 0lQQHU E]Z VLHEHQ -DKUHQ )UDXHQ XQG HLQHP
:DQGHUXQJVVDOGR YRQ 9DULDQWH E]Z 9DULDQWH DXV YJO 6WDWLVWL
VFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 10
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
%HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ
„Die Differenz zwischen den Zahlen der Geborenen und der Gestorbenen bildet die sogenannte natürliche Bevölkerungsbilanz. Diese ist bereits seit Anfang der 1970er Jahre in
'HXWVFKODQG QHJDWLY XQG ZLUG GHVKDOE DOV Ä*HEXUWHQGH¿]LW³ EH]HLFKQHW³ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV
%XQGHVDPW 6 'LH YRUKHUJHKHQGHQ $XVIKUXQJHQ KDEHQ YHUGHXWOLFKW ZLH VLFK DXIJUXQG VWHLJHQGHU /H
EHQVHUZDUWXQJ HLQHP JHULQJHQ )HUWLOLWlWVQLYHDX XQG HLQHU JHQHUHOOHQ $EQDKPH GHU =X
ZDQGHUXQJHQ GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO YROO]LHKW
'LH *HVDPWDQ]DKO GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ HQWZLFNHOW VLFK YRQ DXI GHQ
+|FKVWZHUW YRQ XP GDQQ ODQJVDP ]X VLQNHQ ,P -DKU ZDU HLQH
%HY|ONHUXQJVDQ]DKO YRQ ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ GLH LP -DKU DXI 9DULDQWH E]Z 9DULDQWH VLQNHQ ZLUG
'LH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ GHV OHW]WHQ -DKUKXQGHUWV OlVVW VLFK EHVRQGHUV JXW DQKDQG
GHU %HY|ONHUXQJVS\UDPLGHQ YHUIROJHQ 'LH $EELOGXQJ YHUELOGOLFKW GHQ %HY|ONHUXQJV
VFKZXQG GXUFK GHQ 5FNJDQJ GHU *HEXUWHQ XQG GLH =XQDKPH bOWHUHU 9RQ GHU 3\UDPLGH
EHU GHQ Ä7DQQHQEDXP³ ]XU 8UQH VR NDQQ GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU OHW]WHQ -DKUH XQG GLH
3URJQRVH GHU QlFKVWHQ -DKUH IU 'HXWVFKODQG EHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVS\UDPLGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6
11
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH 3\UDPLGH REHQ OLQNV ]HLJW GHQ $XIEDX GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ LP -DKU 'HU Ä7DQQHQ
EDXP³ PDFKW GLH )ROJHQ GHU :LUWVFKDIWVNULVH XQG GHU EHLGHQ :HOWNULHJH GHXWOLFK GXUFK
GHQ GUDVWLVFKHQ (LQVFKQLWW GHU %HY|ONHUXQJVDQ]DKO GHU ELV -lKULJHQ GLH GHQ .ULH
JHQ ]XP 2SIHU ¿HOHQ $XFK GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVJHVDPW]DKO VLQNW DXIJUXQG GHV $EOHEHQV
YLHOHU 0HQVFKHQ LP JHElUIlKLJHQ $OWHU 'HU KHXWLJH $XIEDX GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ ]HLJW GDVV
GLH PLWWOHUHQ $OWHUVJUXSSHQ EHVRQGHUV VWDUN YHUWUHWHQ VLQG XQG LPPHU ZHQLJHU *HEXUWHQ
VWDWW¿QGHQ „Bis zum Jahr 2060 werden die stark besetzten Jahrgänge weiter nach oben
verschoben und dabei schließlich ausdünnen und von zahlenmäßig kleineren ersetzt. DaPLW JHKHQ VLJQL¿NDQWH 9HUVFKLHEXQJHQ LQ GHU 5HODWLRQ GHU HLQ]HOQHQ $OWHUVJUXSSHQ HLQher.“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 „Die Differenz zwischen den Zahlen der Geborenen und der Gestorbenen bildet die sogenannte natürliche Bevölkerungsbilanz.“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 'HU 9HU
JOHLFK ]ZLVFKHQ *HEXUWHQ]DKOHQ XQG 6WHUEHIlOOHQ YHUGHXWOLFKW GHQ %HY|ONHUXQJVUFN
JDQJ =XZDQGHUXQJHQ N|QQHQ GLHVHV 'H¿]LW QLFKW DXVJOHLFKHQ ,P -DKU ZXUGHQ
.LQGHU JHERUHQ XQG 0HQVFKHQ VWDUEHQ 'DV *HEXUWHQGH¿]LW LQ GLHVHP
-DKU EHWUXJ GHPQDFK )U GLH NRPPHQGHQ -DKUH ZLUG EHL XQJHIlKU JOHLFK
EOHLEHQGHU )HUWLOLWlW HLQH 6WHLJHUXQJ GHV *HEXUWHQGH¿]LWV ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ VHLQ ,P -DKU
ZLUG GDV 'H¿]LW EHUHLWV EHWUDJHQ XQG LP -DKU EHUHLWV
9DULDQWH 'D GLH %DE\%RRP*HQHUDWLRQ QXQ EHUHLWV YHUVWRUEHQ LVW XQG GLH
*HEXUWHQKlX¿JNHLW DOV NRQVWDQW DQJHVHKHQ ZLUG NDQQ QDFK PLW NHLQHU ZHLWHUHQ
6WHLJHUXQJ JHUHFKQHW YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 'LH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ 'HXWVFKODQGV ZHLVW GDV 3KlQRPHQ GHV ÄGUHLIDFKHQ $O
WHUQV³ GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW DXI YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 I ]LW QDFK 7HZV 6 II (UVWHQV QLPPW GLH $Q]DKO bOWHUHU ]X ODJ GHU $QWHLO GHU 3HUVRQHQ DE -DK
UH EHL HQWVSULFKW GHU *HVDPWEHY|ONHUXQJ ZDUHQ HV EH
UHLWV GHU *HVDPWEHY|ONHUXQJ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D
6 ,P -DKU ZHUGHQ QDFK 9DULDQWH GHU 9RUDXVEHUHFKQXQJ GDQQ EHUHLWV GHU 0HQVFKHQ -DKUH RGHU lOWHU VHLQ 1DFK 9DULDQWH VLQG HV RGHU
FD 0HQVFKHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 =ZHLWHQV YHUlQGHUW
VLFK GDV 9HUKlOWQLV ]ZLVFKHQ -XQJ XQG $OW „Ein sog. „Lastenquotient“, der zwischen
Jugend-, Alten- und Gesamtquotient unterscheidet, soll das zahlenmäßige Verhältnis von
Kindern und Jugendlichen (< 20 Jahre) und Älteren (> 65 Jahre) zur erwerbsfähigen
Bevölkerung – und damit einen Lasten- bzw. Unterhaltsaspekt – ausdrücken.“ %DFNHV
&OHPHQV 6 'LH /DVWHQTXRWLHQWHQ VWHOOHQ GDPLW HLQHQ ZHLWHUHQ $Q]HLJHU GHV
$OWHUXQJVSUR]HVVHV GDU 'HU -XJHQGTXRWLHQW EHVFKUHLEW GLH *HJHQEHUVWHOOXQJ GHU XQWHU
-lKULJHQ IU GHUHQ $XVELOGXQJ XQG (U]LHKXQJ JHVRUJW ZHUGHQ PXVV XQG GHU HUZHUEV
IlKLJHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ 'HU $OWHQTXRWLHQW JLEW GDV 9HUKlOWQLV GHU 3HUVRQHQ LP HUZHUEVIlKL
JHQ $OWHU ]X GHQHQ DE -DKUH ZLHGHU 6XPPLHUW PDQ EHLGH HUKlOW PDQ GHQ *HVDPWTXR
WLHQWHQ GHU HLQH $XVVDJH GDUEHU ]XOlVVW LQ ZHOFKHP $XVPD‰ GLH (UZHUEVWlWLJHQ IU GLH
XQWHU -lKULJHQ XQG DE -lKULJHQ DXINRPPHQ PVVHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW
6 9RQ ELV VDQN GHU -XJHQGTXRWLHQW YRQ DXI ZlKUHQG GHU $OWHQTXRWLHQW
LP VHOEHQ =HLWUDXP YRQ DXI VWLHJ YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 ,P
-DKU ODJ GHU $OWHQTXRWLHQW EHL XQG GHU -XJHQGTXRWLHQW EHL %LV ]XP -DKU
12
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
ZLUG GHU -XJHQGTXRWLHQW VLFK NDXP YHUlQGHUQ DEHU GHU $OWHQTXRWLHQW DXI
DQVWHLJHQ XQG VLFK GDPLW IDVW YHUGRSSHOQ ZHQQ PDQ YRQ GHU 8QWHUJUHQ]H GHU ÄPLWW
OHUHQ³ %HY|ONHUXQJ DXVJHKW %HL GHU 2EHUJUHQ]H OLHJHQ GLH :HUWH EHL MHZHLOV XQG
'XUFK GLH $QKHEXQJ GHV 5HQWHQDOWHUV DXI YHUlQGHUQ VLFK DXFK GLH 4XRWLHQWHQ
GD QXQ PHKU 0HQVFKHQ ]X GHQ (UZHUEVWlWLJHQ ]lKOHQ )U ODJ GHU -XJHQGTXRWLHQW
EHL XQG VLQNW ELV DXI 2EHUJUHQ]H 'HU $OWHQTXRWLHQW ODJ EHL
XQG VWHLJW DXI 2EHUJUHQ]H YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 I
'ULWWHQV NDQQ HLQH =XQDKPH GHU +RFKDOWULJNHLW EHREDFKWHW ZHUGHQ $OV KRFKDOWULJ JHO
WHQ 3HUVRQHQ DE -DKUH YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 ]LWLHUW QDFK 7HZV 6
II (LQ 9HUJOHLFK GHU $Q]DKO EHU -lKULJHU YRQ PDFKW GHQ $QVWLHJ
GHXWOLFK 6R OHEWHQ 0HQVFKHQ EHU LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ,P -DKU ZDUHQ
HV EHUHLWV XQG YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ
)UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 %LV ZLUG LKUH =DKO DXI 0LOOLRQHQ VWHLJHQ ZDV
EHGHXWHW GDVV GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ -DKUH RGHU lOWHU VLQG
'HU JHQHUHOOH %HY|ONHUXQJVUFNJDQJ XQG GLH VWHLJHQGH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ ÄEHODVWHQ³
LQVEHVRQGHUH GLH (UZHUEVEHY|ONHUXQJ ]Z XQG E]Z 8QJHIlKU 0LOOLRQHQ
0HQVFKHQ ]lKOHQ PRPHQWDQ ]X GLHVHU *UXSSH ,P -DKU ZHUGHQ HV QXU QRFK FD 0LOOLRQHQ VHLQ XQG ELV JDU QRFK 0LOOLRQHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 )ROJHQGH 6WLFKSXQNWH IDVVHQ GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ ]XVDPPHQ
‡ DQKDOWHQG JHULQJH *HEXUWHQ]DKO
‡ DQKDOWHQG PHKU 6WHUEHIlOOH DOV *HEXUWHQ
‡ $EQDKPH GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ GXUFK ZDFKVHQGHV *HEXUWHQGH¿]LW
‡ 9HUlQGHUXQJ GHU 5HODWLRQHQ ]ZLVFKHQ $OW XQG -XQJ
‡ $OWHUXQJ XQG $EQDKPH GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ LP (UZHUEVDOWHU
‡ %HY|ONHUXQJ LP (UZHUEVDOWHU ZLUG VWDUN GXUFK GLH bOWHUHQ JHSUlJW VHLQ
‡ $OWHQTXRWLHQW IU -DKUH YHUGRSSHOW VLFK IDVW ELV YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQ
GHVDPW 6 'LH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ ELV NDQQ DQKDQG GHU LQWHUDNWLYHQ %HY|ONHUXQJVS\
UDPLGHQ HLQVFKOLH‰OLFK GHU XQWHUVFKLHGOLFKHQ $QQDKPHQ ]XU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ *HEXU
WHQKlX¿JNHLW XQG 0LJUDWLRQ DXI ZZZGHVWDWLVGHEHYRHONHUXQJVS\UDPLGH QDFKYHUIROJW
ZHUGHQ
5HJLRQDOH %HVRQGHUKHLWHQ
„Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ist das am dünnsten besiedelte Bundesland. Insgesamt leben
dort nur 76 Einwohner auf einem Quadratkilometer.“ .U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6
(QGH OHEWHQ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 0HQVFKHQ (V ZXUGHQ LQ GLH
13
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
Anzahl
VHP -DKU .LQGHU JHERUHQ XQG HV VWDUEHQ 3HUVRQHQ ZDV HLQ *HEXUWHQGH¿]LW
YRQ EHGHXWHW *OHLFK]HLWLJ NDPHQ DXI =X]JH )RUW]JH ZDV HLQHQ
:DQGHUXQJVYHUOXVW YRQ EHGHXWHW 'D YRU DOOHP MXQJH 0HQVFKHQ DEZDQGHUQ VHL HV
LQV $XVODQG RGHU DQGHUH %XQGHVOlQGHU lQGHUW VLFK GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU ]XUFNEOHLEHQ
GHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ HQRUP 'DV 'XUFKVFKQLWWVDOWHU VWLHJ DXI -DKUH ZDUHQ HV QRFK
-DKUH YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV $PW 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 6 I 'LH VHKU
JQVWLJH GHPRJUD¿VFKH $XVJDQJVVLWXDWLRQ G K HLQ KRKHU $QWHLO MXQJHU 0HQVFKHQ HLQH
KRKH )HUWLOLWlWVUDWH XQG HLQH JHULQJHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ JHJHQEHU DQGHUHQ %XQGHVOlQ
GHUQ ZDQGHOWH VLFK LP /DXIH GHV OHW]WHQ -DKU]HKQWV HQRUP VRGDVV GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKH
:DQGHO DXFK KLHU YRUDQVFKUHLWHW 'LH $EELOGXQJ YHUGHXWOLFKW GHQ $OWHUVDXIEDX GHU %H
Y|ONHUXQJ
ϲϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϲϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϰϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϰϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϯϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϯϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϮϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϭϬϬ͘ϬϬϬ
ϱϬ͘ϬϬϬ
Ϭ
ϲϰϵ͘Ϭϵϯ
ϱϱϲ͘ϵϬϮ
ϰϭϵ͘ϱϳϭ
ϰϭϯ͘ϬϯϮ
ϯϲϮ͘ϱϬϳ
ϯϭϬ͘ϱϵϬ
Ϯϲϰ͘ϱϳϲ
ϭϴϳ͘Ϯϴϳ
ƵŶƚĞƌ ϭϱ
ϭϵϵϬ
ϮϬϲ͘ϱϴϯ
ϭϳϴ͘ϴϲϰ
ϭϱͲϯϬ
ϯϬͲϰϬ
ϰϬͲϲϱ
ϮϬϭϬ
ϲϱ ƵŶĚ ćůƚĞƌ
Altersgruppen
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVDXIEDX GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV $PW 0HFNOHQ
EXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 6 II HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
'LH /DQGHVSURJQRVH IU 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VFKUHLEW DXI *UXQGODJH GHV %HY|O
NHUXQJVVWDQGHV DXV GHP -DKU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJ IRUW 'DEHL ZLUG LQ GHU 6WDQGDUGYDUL
DQWH YRQ IROJHQGHQ $QQDKPHQ DXVJHJDQJHQ
‡
Ä>«@ GLH *HEXUWHQKlX¿JNHLW VWHLJW ELV YRQ DXI .LQGHU MH )UDX XQG YHUKDUUW DXI
diesem Niveau bis zum Ende des Prognosezeitraums,
‡
die Lebenserwartung bei Geburt nimmt weiter zu und steigt stufenweise bis 2030 für einen
neugeborenen Jungen um 5,6 Jahre auf 80,2 Jahre und für ein neugeborenes Mädchen um 3,8
Jahre auf 85,2 Jahre,
‡
die Fortzüge aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern sinken, ausgehend von 37 711 Personen in 2006,
bis 2020 um ca. die Hälfte,
‡
die Zuzüge nach Mecklenburg-Vorpommern sinken bis 2020 um ca. 10 Prozent.“ (Statistisches
Amt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2009, S. 3).
,P -DKU ZUGHQ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ GHP]XIROJH 0HQVFKHQ
OHEHQ ZDV HLQHQ 5FNJDQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ XP IDVW EHGHXWHW 6WDWLVWLVFKHV $PW
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 6 'HU $OWHUVDXIEDX ZLUG YRQ HLQHP HUQHXWHQ $Q
VWLHJ GHU lOWHUHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW VHLQ :DUHQ 0HQ
14
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
VFKHQ lOWHU DOV ZHUGHQ HV VHLQ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV $PW 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ 6 XQG 'HQQRFK KDW 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 9RUWHLOH JHJHQEHU DQGHUHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ GD
GDV )HUWLOLWlWVQLYHDX KLHU K|KHU OLHJW .LQGHU SUR )UDX ZDV GLH )RUW]JH HW
ZDV DEPLOGHUW YJO .U|KQHUW HW DO 6 'HU $QVWLHJ GHU /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ IlOOW LP
%XQGHVYHUJOHLFK KLQWHU 6DFKVHQ$QKDOW DP QLHGULJVWHQ DXV 6R ZHUGHQ -XQJHQ GLH JHERUHQ ZXUGHQ GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK -DKUH DOW YJO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DK
OHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW%HYRHONHUXQJ6WHUEHIDHOOH7DEHOOHQ/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ%XQ
GHVODHQGHU0DHQQOLFKKWPO 'LH JHULQJHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ LP 2VWHQ ZDU ODQJH =HLW YRU
DOOHP DXI GLH /HEHQVZHLVH ]XUFN]XIKUHQ ZHOFKH JHSUlJW ZDU YRQ KDUWHU N|USHUOLFKHU
$UEHLW LQ GHU /DQGZLUWVFKDIW HLQVHLWLJHU (UQlKUXQJ XQG VWDUNHP $ONRKRONRQVXP YJO
.U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6 $OOH 5HJLRQHQ 'HXWVFKODQGV VLQG PHKU RGHU ZHQLJHU YRQ GHU hEHUDOWHUXQJ GHU %HY|O
NHUXQJ EHWURIIHQ 'LHVH HUJLEW VLFK ]ZDQJVOlX¿J DXV VLQNHQGHU )HUWLOLWlW XQG VWHLJHQGHU
/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ $OOHUGLQJV IKUW GHU )RUW]XJ YRUZLHJHQG MXQJHU 0HQVFKHQ LQ ± PHLVW
ZHVWGHXWVFKH %XQGHVOlQGHU ]X HLQHU 9HUVWlUNXQJ GHV hEHUDOWHUXQJVHIIHNWHV LQ 0HFN
OHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ $XV GLHVHP *UXQG VLQG GLH %LQQHQZDQGHUXQJHQ $XVELOGXQJV
SODW] XQG $UEHLWVSODW]ZDQGHUXQJHQ YRQ EHVRQGHUHU %HGHXWXQJ IU GHQ UDVDQWHQ XQG
DQKDOWHQGHQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 'LH VHKU NOHLQWHLOLJH
XQG ÄGQQH³ 6LHGOXQJVVWUXNWXU GHV %XQGHVODQGHV YHUVWlUNW GDEHL GLH UHJLRQDOHQ 3UREOH
PH VFKRQ (QGH GHU HU -DKUH NRQQWHQ PHKU DOV GLH +lOIWH DOOHU '|UIHU LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ QXU QRFK RGHU ZHQLJHU (LQZRKQHU DXIZHLVHQ .UHLVH ZLH 'HPPLQ
*VWURZ 5JHQ XQG 8HFNHU5DQGRZ YHUORUHQ ]ZLVFKHQ XQG FD LKUHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ GXUFK $EZDQGHUXQJHQ $XFK LQ 6WlGWHQ ZLH *UHLIVZDOG 6FKZHULQ XQG
1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ YHUULQJHUWH VLFK GLH %HY|ONHUXQJ VWDUN *HZLQQHU VLQG GHU HKHPDOLJH
.UHLV /XGZLJVOXVW PLW %HY|ONHUXQJV]XZDFKV LQ -DKUHQ 1RUGZHVWPHFNOHQEXUJ
PLW XQG %DG 'REHUDQ PLW 9RU DOOHP (LQZRKQHU DXV GHQ XPOLHJHQGHQ 6WlGWHQ
]RJHQ DXIV /DQG ZDV IU GDV /DQG NHLQHQ =XJHZLQQ VRQGHUQ QXU HLQH 8PYHUWHLOXQJ GHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ EHGHXWHW YJO .U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6 (UVFKZHUHQG KLQ]X
NRPPW GDVV GDV JHVDPWH %XQGHVODQG YRQ HLQHP )UDXHQPDQJHO LQ GHU $OWHUVNODVVH GHU
ELV -lKULJHQ JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW LVW 'HXWVFKODQGZHLW OLHJW GHU 'XUFKVFKQLWW EHL )UDXHQ SUR 0lQQHU LQ GHU $OWHUVNODVVH ELV LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VLQG
HV )UDXHQ DXI 0lQQHU 9RU DOOHP GLH HKHPDOLJHQ /DQGNUHLVH 8HFNHU5DQGRZ
0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] %DG 'REHUDQ 2VWYRUSRPPHUQ 3DUFKLP 'HPPLQ XQG /XGZLJV
OXVW ZHLVHQ HLQHQ 0lQQHUEHUVFKXVV DXI KLHU NRPPHQ DXI 0lQQHU RGHU ZHQLJHU
)UDXHQ 1XU LQ GHQ JU|‰HUHQ 6WlGWHQ ZLH 5RVWRFN 6WUDOVXQG XQG *UHLIVZDOG NRPPHQ
ELV )UDXHQ DXI 0lQQHU
*UQGH IU GHQ )UDXHQPDQJHO VLQG $EZDQGHUXQJHQ LQ %DOOXQJV]HQWUHQ DXIJUXQG VFKOHFK
WHU EHUXÀLFKHU 3HUVSHNWLYHQ LP HLJHQHQ /DQG 'DVV ZHQLJHU )UDXHQ DXFK ZHQLJHU .LQGHU
EHGHXWHW KDW ZLHGHUXP $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GHQ %HY|ONHUXQJVVWDQG YJO .U|KQHUW2OVW
.OLQJKRO] 6 „Die Neigung zur Abwanderung ist verknüpft mit der Höhe der
4XDOL¿NDWLRQ MH K|KHU GLH %LOGXQJ GHVWR PRELOHU LVW GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVJUXSSH³ .U|K
15
'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
QHUW HW DO 6 'HU VR JHQDQQWH ÄEUDLQ GUDLQ³ G K GHU 9HUOXVW TXDOL¿]LHUWHU XQG
JXW DXVJHELOGHWHU 0HQVFKHQ VWHOOW HLQ JUDYLHUHQGHV +DXSWSUREOHP GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHOV IU GDV %XQGHVODQG GDU (LQH $XVQDKPH LVW *UHLIVZDOG GLH 8QLYHUVLWlW ZLUNW YRU
DOOHP LQ GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ VHKU DQ]LHKHQG DXI MXQJH TXDOL¿]LHUWH 0HQVFKHQ XQG PHKU
DOV GLH +lOIWH GHU 6WXGHQWLQQHQ VLQG )UDXHQ $OOHUGLQJV NDQQ YHUPXWHW ZHUGHQ GDVV YLHOH
GHU =XJH]RJHQHQ QDFK GHP 6WXGLXP LKUH =HOWH ZLHGHU DEEUHFKHQ XQG LQ LKUH +HLPDW
]XUFNJHKHQ GHU 6WXGHQWHQ VWDPPHQ DXV DQGHUHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ E]Z LQ DQGHUH
%XQGHVOlQGHU X D DXIJUXQG GHU UHODWLY VFKOHFKWHQ %HUXIVDXVVLFKWHQ 'HU :DQGHUXQJV
VDOGR 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQV LVW QXU LP %HUHLFK GHU EHU -lKULJHQ SRVLWLY ZDV
GDUDXI ]XUFN ]X IKUHQ LVW GDVV ]XQHKPHQG 5XKHVWlQGOHU LKUHQ $OWHQZRKQVLW] DQ GHU
6HH VXFKHQ YJO .U|KQHUW HW DO 6 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ ZHLVW DOOHUGLQJV
DXFK GHQ /DQGNUHLV PLW GHU K|FKVWHQ )HUWLOLWlWVUDWH YRQ DXI 'HPPLQ hEHUGXUFK
VFKQLWWOLFK YLHOH 7HHQDJHU EHNRPPHQ KLHU .LQGHU KlX¿J QRFK LQ GHU 6FKXO]HLW E]Z LQ
GHU $XVELOGXQJ 6FKXO E]Z $XVELOGXQJVDEEUXFK XQG GDPLW HLQH 3HUVSHNWLYH DXI DQKDO
WHQGH $UEHLWVORVLJNHLW WUEHQ GHQ %OLFN DXI GLH KRKH *HEXUWHQ]DKO
'HU ODQGHVZHLWH )UDXHQPDQJHO KDW ZHLWHUH HQWVFKHLGHQGH 1DFKWHLOH YRU DOOHP LP 3ÀH
JHEHUHLFK GD EHU GHU KlXVOLFKHQ XQG GHU SURIHVVLRQHOOHQ 3ÀHJH YRQ )UDXHQ
HUEUDFKW ZHUGHQ VWHOOW VLFK GLH )UDJH ZLH GHU NQIWLJ VWHLJHQGH 3ÀHJHEHGDUI HLQHU LPPHU
lOWHU ZHUGHQGHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ DEJHGHFNW ZHUGHQ VROO 'DUDXI ZLUG LQ .DSLWHO QlKHU
HLQJHJDQJHQ
16
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
(QWVWHKXQJ XQG (QWZLFNOXQJ
„Gesundheitswesen. Gesamtheit der Einrichtungen und Personen, welche die Gesundheit der Bevölkerung fördern, erhalten und wiederherstellen sollen.“ 1DJHO 6 'DV GHXWVFKH *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ EHVLW]W HLQH ODQJH 7UDGLWLRQ XQG XQWHUODJ HLQHP -DKUKXQ
GHUWH GDXHUQGHQ (QWZLFNOXQJVSUR]HVV ZREHL JUXQGOHJHQGH 6WUXNWXUHQ ZHLWHVWJHKHQG GL
YHUVH 5HJLPHZHFKVHO EHUVWDQGHQ 'LH JU|‰WHQ 9HUlQGHUXQJHQ HUJDEHQ VLFK QDFK GHP
=XVDPPHQEUXFK GHV 1DWLRQDOVR]LDOLVPXV XQG GHU :LHGHUYHUHLQLJXQJ LP *HELHW GHU HKH
PDOLJHQ ''5 YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LH )UVRUJH IU .UDQNH NDQQ ELV LQV 0LWWHODOWHU ]XUFN YHUIROJW ZHUGHQ DOV YRU DOOHP
LP 5DKPHQ GHV FKULVWOLFKHQ *ODXEHQV ]XP =ZHFNH GHV HLJHQHQ 6HHOHQKHLOV %HGUIWLJH
YHUVRUJW ZXUGHQ +RVSLWlOHU GLH YRQ GHU .LUFKH EHWULHEHQ ZXUGHQ YHUVRUJWHQ .UDQNH XQG
$UPH GLH QLFKW RUWVDQVlVVLJ ZDUHQ 9LHOH .O|VWHU EHVD‰HQ $UPHQKlXVHU XQG 3ÀHJHDEWHL
OXQJHQ ,P 0LWWHOSXQNW VWDQG YRUHUVW GLH 9HUSÀHJXQJ XQG 8QWHUNXQIW GHU $UPHQ ZHQLJHU
GLH %HKDQGOXQJ GHU .UDQNKHLWHQ GD GLH *OlXELJHQ GDYRQ DXVJLQJHQ GDVV GLH *HVXQGKHLW
HLQHV 0HQVFKHQ DOOHLQ LQ *RWWHV +DQG OLHJW „Neben der Kirche nahmen sich auch weltliche Orden der Krankenversorgung an, so beispielsweise der Johanniterorden.“ 6LPRQ
6 ,P =XJH GHU 5HIRUPDWLRQ HQWVWDQGHQ LPPHU PHKU VWlGWLVFKH 6SLWlOHU GLH RIWPDOV HLQHQ
$U]W EHVFKlIWLJWHQ
=ZHL GHU ZLFKWLJVWHQ 0HUNPDOH GHV KHXWLJHQ *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHPV KDEHQ LKUHQ 8UVSUXQJ
HEHQIDOOV LP 0LWWHODOWHU QlPOLFK GLH ]XQIWPl‰LJH 2UJDQLVDWLRQ XQG GLH ,QVWLWXWLRQ GHU
*HVHW]OLFKHQ .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ *.9 GHUHQ 9RUOlXIHU GLH =QIWH XQG *HVHOOHQEUX
GHUVFKDIWHQ ZDUHQ bKQOLFK GHU *.9 ZDU DXFK GLH 0LWJOLHGVFKDIW LQ HLQHU =XQIW 3ÀLFKW
XP EHVWLPPWH /HLVWXQJHQ LQ $QVSUXFK QHKPHQ ]X N|QQHQ KLHU GLH %HUXIVDXVEXQJ
'DUEHU KLQDXV XQWHUVWW]WHQ VLFK =XQIWPLWJOLHGHU JHJHQVHLWLJ YJO 6LPRQ 6 *HVHOOHQEUXGHUVFKDIWHQ ZDUHQ HLQH )RUP GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJ „Die Gesellen eines
Handwerkszweiges zahlten einen Teil ihres Lohns („Büchsenpfennig“ o. ä.) in eine gemeinsame Kasse („Büchse“ oder „Gesellenlade“ o. ä.) ein, und aus dieser Kasse erKLHOWHQ GLH 0LWJOLHGHU GLHVHU *HVHOOHQEUXGHUVFKDIW LP )DOOH YRQ .UDQNKHLW RGHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW ¿QDQ]LHOOH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ³ 6LPRQ 6 +LHULQ YHUELUJW VLFK GLH
PLWWHODOWHUOLFKH )RUP GHU /RKQIRUW]DKOXQJ LP .UDQNKHLWVIDOO (LQ ZHLWHUHU 9RUWHLO GHU
0LWJOLHGVFKDIW LQ HLQHU =XQIW ZDU GLH .UDQNHQKDXVYHUVRUJXQJ =QIWH NDXIWHQ HLQH EH
VWLPPWH $Q]DKO YRQ +RVSLWDOEHWWHQ GLH GDQQ GHQ =XQIWPLWJOLHGHUQ EHL %HGDUI ]XU 9HU
IJXQJ VWDQGHQ %LV ]XU *UQGXQJ GHU *.9 (QGH GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV ZDU GLHVH 3UD[LV
EOLFK
17
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
:HLWHUH 0HUNPDOH GHU KHXWLJHQ *.9 QHEHQ GHU VFKRQ HUZlKQWHQ =ZDQJVPLWJOLHGVFKDIW
ZDUHQ DXFK VFKRQ LP 0LWWHODOWHU HWDEOLHUW
‡ 6LFKHUXQJ LP )DOOH HLQHU .UDQNKHLW ZDU DQ HLQ %HVFKlIWLJXQJVYHUKlOWQLV JHEXQGHQ
‡ )LQDQ]LHUXQJ GHU VR]LDOHQ /HLVWXQJHQ HUIROJWH EHU %HLWUlJH GHU 0LWJOLHGHU HLQHU
=XQIW RGHU *HVHOOHQEUXGHUVFKDIW
‡ 6ROLGDUDXVJOHLFK %HLWUlJH ULFKWHWHQ VLFK QDFK GHP (LQNRPPHQ
‡ )DPLOLHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ
‡ 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ =QIWH XQG *HVHOOHQEUXGHUVFKDIWHQ UHJHOWHQ LKUH $QJHOHJHQKHL
WHQ VHOEVW YJO 6LPRQ 6 0LW GHP $XVJDQJ GHV 0LWWHODOWHUV O|VWHQ VLFK ]DKOUHLFKH =QIWH XQG *HVHOOHQEUXGHUVFKDI
WHQ DXI XQG HQWZLFNHOWHQ VLFK ]X JHZHUNVFKDIWOLFKHQ .DPSIYHUElQGHQ
„Die Regulierung der sozialen Sicherung im Krankheitsfall wurde ab dem 17. und 18.
Jahrhundert zunehmend von den Landesherren wahrgenommen, die die Autonomie der
Zünfte einschränkten und in Zunft- und Handwerksordnungen unter anderem auch Vorschriften für Leistungen im Krankheitsfall erließen.“ YJO 6LPRQ 6 'DV 3UHX‰LVFKH /DQGUHFKW YRQ YHUGHXWOLFKW GLH 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ GHV 6WDDWHV IU GLH
9HUVRUJXQJ GHU %UJHU +LHU ZHUGHQ EHUHLWV 3DUDOOHOHQ ]XP KHXWLJHQ 6R]LDOVWDDWVJHERW
GHXWOLFK 9RU DOOHP GLH $EVLFKHUXQJ YRQ %HUJDUEHLWHUQ JDOW DOV YRUELOGOLFK XQG lKQHOW
GHP VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHP VHKU 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW %HLWUDJV
SÀLFKW IUHLH .UDQNHQEHKDQGOXQJ XQG =DKOXQJ HLQHV .UDQNHQORKQHV (QGH GHV -DKU
KXQGHUWV GXUIWHQ +DQGZHUNV XQG *HZHUEHRUGQXQJHQ IUHLZLOOLJH 8QWHUVWW]XQJV XQG
+LOIVNDVVHQ JUQGHQ =ZDQJVKLOIVNDVVHQ YHUJOHLFKEDU PLW GHQ KHXWLJHQ 2UWVNUDQNHQNDV
VHQ ZXUGHQ YRQ *HPHLQGHQ LQV /HEHQ JHUXIHQ ,P -DKUKXQGHUW ZXUGHQ DXFK HUVWH
%HWULHEVNUDQNHQNDVVHQ JHJUQGHW 'LH =DKOXQJ HLQHV $UEHLWJHEHUDQWHLOV ]XU .UDQNHQYHU
VRUJXQJ GHU $UEHLWHU LVW IROJOLFK NHLQH (U¿QGXQJ GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV GHQQ HV JDOW DOV
6HOEVWYHUVWlQGOLFKNHLW GDVV $UEHLWJHEHU IU LKUH $QJHVWHOOWHQ$UEHLWHU ]X VRUJHQ KDEHQ
9JO 6LPRQ 6 I
'LH +HUDXVELOGXQJ HLQHV VWDDWOLFKHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPV LQ 'HXWVFKODQG QDKP LKUHQ $Q
IDQJ ]XP (QGH GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV DOV GLH IRUWVFKUHLWHQGH ,QGXVWULDOLVLHUXQJ XQG 9HU
VWlGWHUXQJ HLQHQ VR]LDOHQ :DQGHO YHUXUVDFKWH 9LHOH 0HQVFKHQ ]RJHQ LQ GLH 6WlGWH XP
GRUW LQ GHQ )DEULNHQ ]X DUEHLWHQ XQG 7HLO DQ GHP ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ )RUWVFKULWW ]X QHKPHQ
'DUDXV UHVXOWLHUHQG YHUNOHLQHUWH VLFK GLH 'RUIJHPHLQVFKDIW (V ZXUGHQ PD‰JHEOLFKH
$XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GLH ,QVWLWXWLRQ GHU )DPLOLH IHVWJHVWHOOW 'HQQ OHEWHQ HKHPDOV PHKUHUH
*HQHUDWLRQHQ XQWHU HLQHP 'DFK XQG DUEHLWHWHQ JHPHLQVDP LP )DPLOLHQEHWULHE lQGHU
WH VLFK GLHV GXUFK GHQ :HJ]XJ GHU PHLVW -QJHUHQ 'LH .LQGHU XQG (QNHO GLH IU GLH
9HUVRUJXQJ GHU bOWHUHQ DUEHLWHWHQ XQG WUDGLWLRQHOO GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ LP 6LQQH GHU 3ÀHJH
EHUQDKPHQ ZDUHQ QXQ QLFKW PHKU YRU 2UW 'LH 9HUVRUJXQJ YLHOHU 0HQVFKHQ LQ GHQ
+HUNXQIWVUHJLRQHQ ZDU VR QLFKW PHKU JHZlKUOHLVWHW JUR‰HV (OHQG HQWVWDQG 9JO 5LWWHU
6 'LH :LUWVFKDIWVNULVH YRQ XQG GLH GDPLW YHUEXQGHQH 0DVVHQDUEHLWV
ORVLJNHLW YHUJU|‰HUWH GLH 1RW GHU 0HQVFKHQ QRFK 'LHVH (QWZLFNOXQJ DOVR GLH 3UREOHPH
GLH YRU DOOHP DOV )ROJH GHU ,QGXVWULDOLVLHUXQJ HQWVWDQGHQ ZLUG PLW GHP %HJULII GHU Ä6R
18
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
]LDOHQ )UDJH³ XPVFKULHEHQ 'HU %HJULII XPIDVVW VRZRKO GHQ 3UR]HVV GHU 0DVVHQYHUHOHQ
GXQJ DXIJUXQG GHV HQRUPHQ %HY|ONHUXQJVZDFKVWXPV XQG GHU 9HUVWlGWHUXQJ DOV DXFK GLH
PLVHUDEOHQ $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ LQ GHQ )DEULNHQ 'HU 'UXFN DXI GLH 5HJLHUHQGHQ HLQH
9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU 6LWXDWLRQ KHUEHL ]X IKUHQ ZXUGH LPPHU JU|‰HU HEHQVR ZLH GLH $QJVW
YRU $XIVWlQGHQ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ +LQ]X NDP GHU SROLWLVFKH .DPSI JHJHQ GLH 6R]LDOGH
PRNUDWLH GHUHQ (LQÀXVV DXI GLH XQ]XIULHGHQHQ 0HQVFKHQ JHIUFKWHW ZXUGH (V EHVWDQG
+DQGOXQJVEHGDUI XQG LP /DXIH GHU -DKU]HKQWH ZXUGHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ ]XU 9HUEHVVHUXQJ
GHU 6LWXDWLRQ HUJULIIHQ 6R EHWRQWH GHU JHJUQGHWH Ä&HQWUDOYHUHLQ IU GDV :RKO GHU
DUEHLWHQGHQ .ODVVHQ³ GLH %HGHXWXQJ GHU „[…] Verantwortung des Staates für die soziale
Sicherheit seiner Bürger […].“ 5LWWHU 6 %HUHLWV YRUKDQGHQH *HVHW]H ZLH
GDV 8QWHUVWW]XQJVNDVVHQJHVHW] XQG GDV .QDSSVFKDIWVJHVHW] ZDUHQ YRQ
]HQWUDOHU %HGHXWXQJ IU GLH (QWVWHKXQJ GHU 6R]LDOJHVHW]H ,P =XJH GHV .QDSSVFKDIWVJH
VHW]HV ZXUGHQ GLH .QDSSVFKDIWHQ 7UlJHU GHU |IIHQWOLFKUHFKWOLFKHQ $UEHLWHUYHUVLFKHUXQJ
YJO HEG 6 „Die Bergarbeiter erhielten damit eine freie medizinische Versorgung,
ZXUGHQ JHJHQ GLH ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ )ROJHQ YRQ (UZHUEVXQIlKLJNHLW DXIJUXQG YRQ .UDQNKHLW
Unfall, Invalidität und Alter abgesichert.“ HEG
$OV HLJHQWOLFKH *HEXUWVVWXQGH GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ JLOW GHU 1RYHPEHU ,Q GHU
.DLVHUOLFKHQ %RWVFKDIW ZHOFKH DXI GHQ 5HLFKVNDQ]OHU 2WWR YRQ %LVPDUFN ]XUFN JHKW
ZXUGH GLH 1RWZHQGLJNHLW YRQ *HVHW]HQ GLH ]XU ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ $EVLFKHUXQJ GHU $UEHLWHU
JHJHQ .UDQNKHLW 8QIDOO ,QYDOLGLWlW XQG $OWHU GLHQHQ IRUPXOLHUW YJO HEG 6 'HU
6WDDW VROOWH GHPQDFK IU GLH 6LFKHUKHLW GHU %UJHU DXINRPPHQ ,Q )ROJH GHVVHQ ZXUGHQ
GDV .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJVJHVHW] GDV 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJVJHVHW] XQG GDV *HVHW] GHU ,QYDOLGLWlWV XQG $OWHUVYHUVLFKHUXQJ LQ GHQ 6LW]XQJHQ GHV 5HLFKVWDJHV
YHUDEVFKLHGHW „Ziel der von Reichskanzler Bismarck konzipierten Sozialpolitik war (das
bringt auch die kaiserliche Botschaft eindeutig zum Ausdruck) die Sicherung des Friedens und die Erhaltung der Monarchie.“ 6LPRQ 6 :LH KHXWH ZDU DXFK GDPDOV GDV 9RUKDQGHQVHLQ HLQHV %HVFKlIWLJXQJVYHUKlOWQLVVHV GLH
%HGLQJXQJ IU GLH =XJHK|ULJNHLW LQ HLQHU .DVVH 0HQVFKHQ GLH %HUXIH DXVEWHQ IU GLH
NHLQH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW EHVWDQG NRQQWHQ VLFK LQ IUHLZLOOLJHQ +LOIVNDVVHQ YHUVLFKHUQ
$XFK GDPDOV NDP GHU $UEHLWJHEHU IU HLQHQ 7HLO GHU %HLWUlJH DXI =X GHQ ]X GLHVHU
=HLW JHZlKUWHQ /HLVWXQJHQ ]lKOWHQ GLH lU]WOLFKH %HKDQGOXQJ GLH $U]QHLPLWWHOYHUVRUJXQJ
.UDQNHQKDXV%HKDQGOXQJHQ =DKOXQJ GHV .UDQNHQJHOGHV DE GHP 7DJ GHU $UEHLWVXQ
IlKLJNHLW LQ +|KH YRQ GHV $UEHLWVHQWJHOWHV :|FKQHULQQHQ 8QWHUVWW]XQJ XQG HLQ
JHVHW]OLFK IHVWJHOHJWHV 6WHUEHJHOG $OOH .DVVHQ HUEUDFKWHQ GLH JOHLFKHQ /HLVWXQJHQ GLHV
ZDU JHVHW]OLFK YRUJHVFKULHEHQ ]XVlW]OLFKH /HLVWXQJHQ NRQQWHQ DQJHERWHQ ZHUGHQ 'DV
6DFKOHLVWXQJVSULQ]LS EHL GHP GLH .UDQNHQNDVVHQ GHQ /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHUQ GLH .RVWHQ IU
PHGL]LQLVFKH /HLVWXQJHQ HUVWDWWHQ LVW KHXWH HLQ ZHVHQWOLFKHV 0HUNPDO GHU /HLVWXQJVHU
EULQJXQJ 9JO 6LPRQ 6 „[…] dennoch aber waren 1911 lediglich ca. 18%
der Bevölkerung in ca. 2000 Krankenkassen versichert.“ 6LPRQ 6 %HVWHKHQGH *HVHW]H ZXUGHQ LP /DXIH GHU =HLW LPPHU ZHLWHU JHlQGHUW VRGDVV VLFK X D
GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQNUHLV YHUJU|‰HUWH XQG DXFK 3HUVRQHQ YHUVLFKHUW ZDUHQ GLH YRUKHU DXI
JUXQG LKUHU VFKOHFKWHQ ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ 6LWXDWLRQ NHLQH 9HUVLFKHUXQJ DEVFKOLH‰HQ NRQQWHQ 6R
19
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
HUIROJWH HLQH $XVZHLWXQJ DXI ODQG XQG IRUVWZLUWVFKDIWOLFKH $UEHLWHU 'LHQVWERWHQ 7DJH
O|KQHU XQG :DQGHU XQG +DXVJHZHUEH $E ZDUHQ VR ó GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ YHUVLFKHUW
6LPRQ 6 'LH (UZHLWHUXQJ GHV 3HUVRQHQNUHLVHV GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQ IKUWH ]X HL
QHU HQRUPHQ TXDOLWDWLYHQ 9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU /HEHQVODJH YLHOHU 0HQVFKHQ 9RU (LQIKUXQJ
GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ VLFKHUWH GLH $UPHQIUVRUJH $UEHLWHU YRU EHVWLPPWHQ 5LVLNHQ ZLH
$OWHU XQG .UDQNKHLW 'DPLW HLQKHU JLQJ DOOHUGLQJV HLQH (QWZUGLJXQJ GHU (PSIlQJHU
DXIJUXQG GHV $OPRVHQFKDUDNWHUV GHU )UVRUJH 'LH QHX HLQJHIKUWH 9HUVLFKHUXQJ DOOHU
GLQJV UlXPWH HLQHQ ELVKHU QLFKW YRUKDQGHQHQ 5HFKWVDQVSUXFK HLQ XQG lQGHUWH VR GLH 6LWX
DWLRQ GHU 3HUVRQHQ GLH HLQHQ 9HUVLFKHUXQJVIDOO HUOLWWHQ 9JO 5LWWHU 6 „Da die
Wurzeln der Krankenhäuser im mittelalterlichen Hospitalwesen und der Armenfürsorge
lagen und Hospitäler, die vor allem Arme und Bedürftige versorgten, keine Chance hatten, ihre Kosten von diesen vergütet zu erhalten, mussten sie sich zumeist aus Spenden
RGHU |IIHQWOLFKHQ =XZHQGXQJHQ ¿QDQ]LHUHQ³ 6LPRQ 6 'LHV lQGHUWH VLFK PLW
*UQGXQJ GHU *.9 GD bU]WH XQG .UDQNHQKlXVHU GLH /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHU VLFKHU VHLQ
NRQQWHQ IU LKUH /HLVWXQJHQ DXFK EH]DKOW ]X ZHUGHQ
=XP (QGH GHV -DKUKXQGHUWV HQWVWDQGHQ HUVWH $XVHLQDQGHUVHW]XQJHQ ]ZLVFKHQ GHQ
.DVVHQ XQG GHQ bU]WHQ GD ]XQHKPHQG bU]WH YRQ GHU 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU *.99HUVLFKHUWHQ
DXVJHVFKORVVHQ ZXUGHQ „Die Krankenkassen hatten durch ein Gesetz von 1892 das Recht
HUKDOWHQ LQ LKUHU 6DW]XQJ GLH =DKO GHU HUIRUGHUOLFKHQ bU]WH IU GH¿QLHUWH 9HUVRUJXQJVEHreiche festzulegen und mit diesen Ärzten Einzeldienstverträge über die Versorgung ihrer
Versicherten abzuschließen.“ 6LPRQ 6 (UVWH .DPSIYHUElQGH JUQGHWHQ VLFK
GDUDXIKLQ XQG GLH 6LWXDWLRQ VSLW]WH VLFK ELV ]XU $QGURKXQJ HLQHV *HQHUDOVWUHLNV ]X 'DV
(QGH GHV .RQÀLNWV VWHOOWH GDV Ä%HUOLQHU $ENRPPHQ³ GDU „Mit dem Berliner Abkommen
wurden wichtige Grundlagen des Systems der vertragsärztlichen Versorgung in Deutschland gelegt, die auch heute noch Gültigkeit haben (Verhältniszahlen für die Bedarfsplanung, gemeinsame Selbstverwaltung von Ärzten und Krankenkassen).“ 6LPRQ 6
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ ]XU =HLW GHU :HLPDUHU 5HSXEOLN XQG GHV 1DWLRQDOVR]LDOLVPXV
ZDU JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW GXUFK :HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJHQ 1DFK $XVODXIHQ GHV %HUOLQHU $ENRP
PHQV ZXUGHQ GHVVHQ ,QKDOWH LQ GLH 9HURUGQXQJ EHU bU]WH XQG .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
EHUQRPPHQ $XV GHP ]XYRU JHJUQGHWHQ 5HLFKVDXVVFKXVV IU bU]WH XQG .UDQNHQNDV
VHQ GHU X D 5LFKWOLQLHQ IU $U]WYHUWUlJH HUVWHOOWH ZXUGH HLQ %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV ZHOFKHU
LP -DKU ]XP *HPHLQVDPHQ %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV *%$ GXUFK ,QWHJUDWLRQ ZHLWHUHU
/HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHU ZXUGH YJO 6LPRQ 6 I 8P JUQGHWHQ VLFK HEHQIDOOV
NDVVHQlU]WOLFKH 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ GLH DOV .|USHUVFKDIWHQ GHV |IIHQWOLFKHQ 5HFKWV 9HUKDQG
OXQJHQ PLW GHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ GXUFKIKUWHQ X D ]X GHQ *HVDPWYHUWUlJHQ IU GLH 9HU
JWXQJ DOOHU lU]WOLFKHQ /HLVWXQJHQ „Die einzelne Kasse zahlte ihren Anteil in Form einer
Kopfpauschale für jeden Versicherten an die Kassenärztliche Vereinigung; damit war
sie von allen Vergütungsforderungen des einzelnen Arztes freigestellt.“ 6LPRQ 6
'HU 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ G K GLH 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJ GHU lU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ ODJ QXQ EHL GHQ .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ HEHQVR ZLH GDV 5HFKW
DXI GLH =XODVVXQJ GHU .DVVHQlU]WH 'LH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJHQ ZXU
GH YRQ GHQ 1DWLRQDOVR]LDOLVWHQ DEJHVFKDIIW XQG GHP 5HLFKVDUEHLWVPLQLVWHU EHUWUDJHQ
20
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
GHU 6WDDWVNRPPLVVDUH DOV /HLWHU HLQ]HOQHU .DVVHQ HLQVHW]WH *UR‰H bQGHUXQJHQ IDQGHQ
ELV DXI HLQLJH /HLVWXQJVHUZHLWHUXQJHQ 9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU 0WWHUIUVRUJH XQG $XVZHLWXQJ
GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW DXI $UWLVWHQ +HEDPPHQ XQG :RFKHQSÀHJHULQQHQ XQG GLH (LQ
IKUXQJ GHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ IU 5HQWQHU QLFKW VWDWW
1DFK GHP (QGH GHV =ZHLWHQ :HOWNULHJHV XQG *UQGXQJ GHU %5' ZXUGH GLH 6HOEVWYHU
ZDOWXQJ GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVWUlJHU ZLHGHUKHUJHVWHOOW 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJVJHVHW] (LQLJH GHU ZLFKWLJVWHQ bQGHUXQJHQ GHU HU XQG HU -DKUH ZDUHQ
‡ GDV *HVHW] EHU GDV .DVVHQDU]WUHFKW $XIQDKPH GHU .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HU
HLQLJXQJHQ LQ GDV 5HFKW GHU %5'
‡ $XIKHEXQJ GHU 1LHGHUODVVXQJVEHVFKUlQNXQJHQ IU bU]WH
‡ QHXH *HEKUHQYHURUGQXQJ (LQ]HOOHLVWXQJVYHUJWXQJHQ VWDWW .RSISDXVFKD
OHQV\VWHP
‡ YROOVWlQGLJH (LQEH]LHKXQJ GHU 5HQWQHU LQ GLH *.9 ‡ 1RYHOOLHUXQJ GHV /RKQIRUW]DKOXQJVJHVHW]HV $UEHLWJHEHU ]DKOW GHQ /RKQ LQ
GHQ HUVWHQ :RFKHQ GHU .UDQNKHLW ZHLWHU XQG QLFKW PHKU GLH .DVVH $UEHLWHU XQG
$QJHVWHOOWH ZHUGHQ JOHLFKJHVWHOOW
‡ IUHLZLOOLJHU %HLWULWW LQ GLH *.9 P|JOLFK ZRGXUFK VLFK GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQNUHLV YHU
JU|‰HUWH 9JO 6LPRQ 6 II
'LH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW ZXUGH LP /DXIH GHU HU -DKUH ]XQHKPHQG DXVJHZHLWHW X D DXI
/DQGZLUWH 6WXGHQWHQ XQG 0HQVFKHQ PLW %HKLQGHUXQJHQ
hEHUIlOOLJ ZDU GLH 5HIRUP GHU .UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ]LHUXQJ GD .RVWHQ NDXP DXVUHLFKHQG
JHGHFNW ZHUGHQ NRQQWHQ Ä'DV .UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ]LHUXQJVJHVHW] .+* YRQ XQG
GLH DXI VHLQHU *UXQGODJH HUODVVHQH %XQGHVSÀHJHVDW]YHURUGQXQJ %3À9 YRQ JHwährten den Krankenhäusern einen Anspruch auf Deckung ihrer Selbstkosten und führten staatliche Krankenhausplanung, die duale Finanzierung und den allgemeinen tagesJOHLFKHQ 3ÀHJHVDW] HLQ³ 6LPRQ 6 1DFK GHP 6HOEVWNRVWHQGHFNXQJVSULQ]LS
VROOHQ 3ÀHJHVlW]H VR NDONXOLHUW ZHUGHQ GDVV GLH .RVWHQ HLQHV .UDQNHQKDXVHV JHGHFNW
ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ (EHQIDOOV ZXUGH GLH VWDDWOLFKH .UDQNHQKDXVSODQXQJ YHUDQODVVW GLH
/lQGHU YHUSÀLFKWHW HLQHQ /DQGHVNUDQNHQKDXVSODQ ]X HUVWHOOHQ GHU VRZRKO GHQ %HGDUI
DQ .UDQNHQKDXVOHLVWXQJHQ DOV DXFK GLH GDIU QRWZHQGLJHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU XQG %HWWHQ
DQ]DKO HQWKlOW )U .UDQNHQKlXVHU JLOW VHLWGHP GLH GXDOH )LQDQ]LHUXQJ ZDV EHGHXWHW
GDVV ,QYHVWLWLRQVNRVWHQ YRQ GHQ /lQGHUQ XQG GLH %HWULHEVNRVWHQ YRQ GHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
EHUQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 6HLW GHQ HU -DKUHQ ZLUG .RVWHQGlPSIXQJVSROLWLN EHWULHEHQ ZDV XQWHU DQGHUHP LQ GHU
9HUDEVFKLHGXQJ GLYHUVHU *HVHW]H PQGHWH X D GDV .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJV.RVWHQGlPS
IXQJVJHVHW] .9.* ,QKDOW ZDU GLH bQGHUXQJ GHU 9HUJWXQJVV\VWHPH XQG GLH (UK|KXQJ
YRQ =X]DKOXQJHQ 'DV .UDQNHQKDXV1HXRUGQXQJVJHVHW] YHUlQGHUWH GLH )LQDQ]LH
UXQJVPRGDOLWlWHQ GD QXQ SDXVFKDOLVLHUWH 9HUJWXQJHQ P|JOLFK ZXUGHQ XQG 3ÀHJHVlW]H
SURVSHNWLY NDONXOLHUW ZXUGHQ 'DV *HVXQGKHLWVUHIRUPJHVHW] HUP|JOLFKWH X D GLH
$EVLFKHUXQJ LP )DOOH GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW GXUFK GLH *.9 1DFK (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3ÀH
JHYHUVLFKHUXQJ EHUQDKP GLHVH GLH $EVLFKHUXQJ YJO 6LPRQ 6 21
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ GHU ''5 XQWHUVFKLHG VLFK JUXQGOHJHQG YRQ GHP GHU %5' „Das
Gesundheitssystem der DDR war ein zentralstaatliches System mit zentralstaatlicher
Planung und zugleich auch staatlicher Leistungserbringung.“ 6LPRQ 6 'DV
0LQLVWHULXP IU $UEHLW XQG *HVXQGKHLW NRQWUROOLHUWH XQG YHUZDOWHWH DOOH %HODQJH GHV *H
VXQGKHLWVZHVHQV ,P 0LWWHOSXQNW GHU PHGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ VWDQGHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU
3ROLNOLQLNHQ DPEXODQWH (LQULFKWXQJHQ HLQHV .UDQNHQKDXVHV PLW FD VHFKV )DFKDEWHLOXQ
JHQ HLQHU ]DKQlU]WOLFKHQ $EWHLOXQJ HLQHP /DERU HLQHU $SRWKHNH XQG $PEXODWRULHQ
,P -DKU JDE HV LP JHVDPWHQ *HELHW GHU ''5 3ROLNOLQLNHQ $PEXODWRULHQ
VWDDWOLFKH $U]WSUD[HQ XQG *HPHLQGHVFKZHVWHUQVWDWLRQHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6
I 9RUWHLOKDIW IU GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ ZDU GLH JXWH =XVDPPHQDUEHLW ]ZL
VFKHQ GHP DPEXODQWHQ XQG VWDWLRQlUHQ 6HNWRU (LQ]HOSUD[HQ ZLH VLH LQ :HVWGHXWVFKODQG
GLH 5HJHO ZDUHQ ZDUHQ GLH $XVQDKPH LQ GHU ''5 'LH 1LHGHUODVVXQJVEHGLQJXQJHQ ZXU
GHQ HUVFKZHUW GD GLH DPEXODQWH 9HUVRUJXQJ DXVVFKOLH‰OLFK LQ 3ROLNOLQLNHQ RGHU $PEX
ODWRULHQ VWDWW¿QGHQ VROOWH 'DPLW HLQKHU JLQJ HLQH VWDUNH $EZDQGHUXQJ YRQ bU]WHQ LQ GLH
%XQGHVUHSXEOLN GD GLH $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ XQG 9HUGLHQVWP|JOLFKNHLWHQ GRUW ZHVHQWOLFK
DWWUDNWLYHU ZDUHQ 'LH )ROJH ZDUHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVSUREOHPH „Vor allem ländliche Regionen
waren unterversorgt und auf die Leistungen der niedergelassenen Ärzte angewiesen, die
aber zunehmend aufgaben und abwanderten.“ 6LPRQ 6 'XUFK GHQ %DX GHU
0DXHU NRQQWH GLH $EZDQGHUXQJ DE HLQJHGlPPW ZHUGHQ
'LH YRONVZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ %HWULHEH QDKPHQ HLQH HQWVFKHLGHQGH 5ROOH EHL GHU PHGL]LQLVFKHQ
9HUVRUJXQJ HLQ „Das Betriebsgesundheitswesen (BGW) hatte Aufgaben der Primärprävention und Unfallverhütung, aber auch der Ersten Hilfe und ambulanten medizinischen
Versorgung durch Arztsanitätsstellen, Betriebsambulatorien und Betriebspolikliniken zu
erfüllen.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJV]ZHLJH ZXUGHQ ]XVDPPHQ
JHIDVVW XQG VHLWGHP ]HQWUDO JHOHQNW 'HU )UHLH *HZHUNVFKDIWVEXQG )'*% EHUQDKP
DE GLH YROOVWlQGLJH /HLWXQJ GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ 'LH 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZXUGH
GHPQDFK YHUVWDDWOLFKW XQG GLH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ DEJHVFKDIIW %HLWUlJH ZXUGHQ HEHQIDOOV
YRQ $UEHLWQHKPHU XQG $UEHLWJHEHU HQWULFKWHW XQG GLH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW ZDU JHEXQGHQ
DQ HLQH %HVFKlIWLJXQJ XQDEKlQJLJ YRQ GHU +|KH GHV (LQNRPPHQV %DXHUQ +DQGZHUNHU
XQG 6HOEVWVWlQGLJH ZDUHQ HEHQIDOOV YHUVLFKHUW ZHQQ VLH ZHQLJHU DOV IQI $QJHVWHOOWH KDW
WHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LH /HLVWXQJHQ lKQHOWHQ GHQHQ GHU ZHVWOLFKHQ 6R]LDOYHUVL
FKHUXQJ XQG EHLQKDOWHWHQ X D IUHLH lU]WOLFKH XQG ]DKQlU]WOLFKH %HKDQGOXQJ VRZLH /RKQ
IRUW]DKOXQJHQ IU :RFKHQ QDFK $XIWUHWHQ GHU $UEHLWVXQIlKLJNHLW XQG .UDQNHQJHOG
'LH 5DKPHQ.UDQNHQKDXVRUGQXQJ 5.2 OHJWH $XIJDEHQ XQG )XQNWLRQHQ GHU .UDQNHQ
KlXVHU IHVW 'HU VFKOHFKWH EDXOLFKH =XVWDQG YLHOHU .UDQNHQKlXVHU XQG IHKOHQGH 0RGHUQL
VLHUXQJHQ XQG WHFKQLVFKH $XVVWDWWXQJ IKUWHQ ]X 9HUVRUJXQJVPlQJHOQ GLH LP 9HUJOHLFK
]XU %XQGHVUHSXEOLN HLQH KRKH 6lXJOLQJVVWHUEOLFKNHLW XQG JHULQJH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ ]XU
)ROJH KDWWHQ 9JO 6LPRQ 6 II
7URW] GHU GDUJHVWHOOWHQ 0lQJHO N|QQHQ YLHOH SRVLWLYH 0HUNPDOH GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV
GHU ''5 DXVJHPDFKW ZHUGHQ 'LH :LHGHUHLQIKUXQJ HLQLJHU PRGL¿]LHUWHU 0RGHOOH ZXU
GH EHUHLWV EHVFKORVVHQ GDUXQWHU ] % GLH 0HGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ GLH LQ 7UD
GLWLRQ GHU 3ROLNOLQLN VWHKHQ XQG GLH DPEXODQWH XQG VWDWLRQlUH 9HUVRUJXQJ YRU DOOHP LP
OlQGOLFKHQ 5DXP YHUELQGHQ VROOHQ
22
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
1DFK GHU :LHGHUYHUHLQLJXQJ DP ZXUGH GDV ''56\VWHP GHP ZHVWGHXWVFKHQ
*HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DQJHSDVVW 'LH IROJHQGHQ -DKUH ZDUHQ YRQ HLQHU 9LHO]DKO VWUXNWXUHOOHU
bQGHUXQJHQ JH]HLFKQHW (LQLJH GDYRQ VROOHQ NXU] EHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
*HVXQGKHLWVVWUXNWXUJHVHW] X D VHNWRUDOH %XGJHWLHUXQJ JHVHW]OLFKH %H
JUHQ]XQJ GHU (UK|KXQJ GHU *HVDPWYHUJWXQJ IU DPEXODQWH lU]WO 9HUVRUJXQJ 5H
IRUP GHU .UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ]LHUXQJ 8PVWHOOXQJ YRP DOOJ 3ÀHJHVDW] DXI SDXVFKDOL
VLHUWH YHUZHLOGDXHUXQDEKlQJLJH 9HUJWXQJHQ 5HIRUP GHU *.9 (UVDW]NDVVHQ IU
DOOH 9HUVLFKHUWHQJUXSSHQ JH|IIQHW DE 5LVLNRVWUXNWXUDXVJOHLFK
3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ $EVLFKHUXQJ JHJHQ GDV 5LVLNR HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJ
NHLW 'LH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ IROJW GHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ XQG LKU $EVFKOXVV LVW
YHUSÀLFKWHQG
*HVXQGKHLWVUHIRUP +DXVDU]W DOV /RWVH LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ HU HUVWHOOW GLH
HUVWH 'LDJQRVH XQG EHUZHLVW EHL %HGDUI DQ )DFKlU]WH (LQIKUXQJ HLQHV )DOOSDX
VFKDOHQV\VWHPV '5*6\VWHP2 ]XU $EUHFKQXQJ YRQ .UDQNHQKDXVOHLVWXQJHQ 9JO
6LPRQ 6 II
*.90RGHUQLVLHUXQJVJHVHW] =X GHQ ZLFKWLJVWHQ bQGHUXQJHQ ]lK
OHQ GLH 6WUHLFKXQJ YLHOHU /HLVWXQJHQ ] % %ULOOHQ XQG .RQWDNWOLQVHQ GLH )HVW
OHJXQJ GHU =X]DKOXQJHQ YRQ PLQG ¼ XQG PD[ ¼ XQG GLH (LQIKUXQJ HLQHU
3UD[LVJHEKU YRQ ¼ SUR 4XDUWDO YJO 6LPRQ 6 I
*.9:HWWEHZHUEVVWlUNXQJVJHVHW] *.9:6* 6FKDIIXQJ GHV *HVXQG
KHLWVIRQGV HLQ]HOQH .DVVHQ EHNRPPHQ =XZHLVXQJHQ DQKDQG LKUHV /HLVWXQJVEH
GDUIV $E JLOW HLQH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW IU DOOH %UJHU 'HXWVFKODQGV
(EHQIDOOV DE -DQXDU PVVHQ GLH 3ULYDWHQ .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJHQ HLQHQ %D
VLVWDULI DQELHWHQ 'LH %XGJHWLHUXQJ LQ GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ ZXUGH GXUFK GLH
PRUELGLWlWVRULHQWLHUWH *HVDPWYHUJWXQJ HUVHW]W XQG GHU =XJDQJ GHU .UDQNHQKlXVHU
]XU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ HUOHLFKWHUW †E $EV 6*% 9 9JO 6LPRQ 6 I
3ÀHJH:HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJVJHVHW] (UK|KXQJ GHU /HLVWXQJVVlW]H XQG GHV
%HLWUDJVVDW]HV DXI VRZLH YHUEHVVHUWH /HLVWXQJHQ IU 0HQVFKHQ PLW HUK|K
WHP %HWUHXXQJVEHGDUI 'HPHQ] 'LH H[WHUQH 4XDOLWlWVVLFKHUXQJ ZXUGH DXVJHEDXW
XQG 3ÀHJHVWW]SXQNWH PVVHQ YRQ /lQGHUQ HLQJHULFKWHW ZHUGHQ JOHLFK]HLWLJ KDW
MHGHU %UJHU HLQHQ $QVSUXFK DXI 3ÀHJHEHUDWXQJ GXUFK GLH 3ÀHJHNDVVH YJO 6LPRQ
6 .UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ]LHUXQJVUHIRUPJHVHW] 'LH /DQGHVEDVLVIDOOZHUWH3 sollen
ELV DXI GHQ %XQGHVEDVLVIDOOZHUW DQJHJOLFKHQ ZHUGHQ 'LH 6LWXDWLRQ LP 3ÀH
JHGLHQVW VROO GXUFK 6FKDIIXQJ ]XVlW]OLFKHU 6WHOOHQ YHUEHVVHUW ZHUGHQ YJO 6LPRQ
6 '5* 'LDJQRVHV UHODWHG JURXSV GLDJQRVHEH]RJHQH )DOOSDXVFKDOHQ
3 'HU /DQGHVEDVLVIDOOZHUW ZLUG YRQ GHQ 9HUWUDJVSDUWHLHQ DXI /DQGHVHEHQH MHGHV -DKU IU GDV IROJHQGH
-DKU DQJHJHEHQ XQG EHVFKUHLEW GHQ 3UHLV IU HLQHQ %DVLVIDOO DOVR HLQHQ EHVWLPPWHQ .UDQNKHLWVIDOO 'LH
HQGJOWLJHQ %HKDQGOXQJVNRVWHQ GLH GHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHUQ YRQ GHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ HUVWDWWHW ZHUGHQ HUJH
EHQ VLFK GXUFK 0XOWLSOLNDWLRQ GHV /DQGHVEDVLVIDOOZHUWV PLW GHP 5HODWLYJHZLFKW $XIZDQG GHU %HKDQG
OXQJ IU GLH MHZHLOLJH PHGL]LQLVFKH /HLVWXQJ
23
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
‡
$U]QHLPLWWHOJHVHW]1RYHOOH 'DV $U]QHLPLWWHOJHVHW] ZLUG DQ HXURSlLVFKH 9HU
RUGQXQJHQ DQJHJOLFKHQ „Apotheken wird ein Anspruch auf angemessene und kontinuierliche Belieferung gegenüber Großhändlern eingeräumt und Großhändlern
ein Anspruch gegenüber pharmazeutischen Unternehmen.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ GHV 6WDDWHV
,QVWLWXWLRQHQ DXI %XQGHVHEHQH
'DV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW ZXUGH JHJUQGHW XQG EHIDVVW VLFK PLW DOOHQ
)UDJHQ UXQG XP GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ VRZLH GHU 5HLQKDOWXQJ GHU /XIW GHU /lUPEH
NlPSIXQJ GHU :DVVHUJWH GHU +\JLHQH GHV :DVVHUV XQG $EZDVVHUV GHV *HVXQGKHLWV
VFKXW]HV JHJHQ GLH *HIDKUHQ LRQLVLHUHQGHU 6WUDKOHQ VRZLH GHV 9HUEUDXFKHUVFKXW]HV YRU
7lXVFKXQJ EHL $U]QHLPLWWHOQ XQG /HEHQVPLWWHOQ YJO 1DJHO 6 „Zu den zentralen Aufgaben zählt, die Leistungsfähigkeit der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung soZLH GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ]X HUKDOWHQ ]X VLFKHUQ XQG IRUW]XHQWZLFNHOQ³ KWWSZZZ
EPJEXQGGHPLQLVWHULXPDXIJDEHQXQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDXIJDEHQKWPO
=ZHL $EWHLOXQJHQ GHV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXPV IU $UEHLW XQG 6R]LDORUGQXQJ %0$ QlP
OLFK GLH $EWHLOXQJ Ä6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ 6*%³ PLW 8QWHUDEWHLOXQJ Ä*UXQGVDW]IUDJHQ GHU
6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ³ XQG GLH $EWHLOXQJ Ä3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ 3UlYHQ
WLRQ XQG 5HKDELOLWDWLRQ³ VLQG LP .RQWH[W GLHVHU $UEHLW ZHVHQWOLFK 'DV %XQGHVPLQLVWH
ULXP IU 8PZHOW 1DWXUVFKXW] XQG 5HDNWRUVLFKHUKHLW EHIDVVW VLFK LQVEHVRQGHUH PLW )UD
JHQ GHV 8PZHOWVFKXW]HV XQG GHQ DXV 8PZHOWEHODVWXQJHQ HLQKHUJHKHQGHQ *HIlKUGXQJHQ
IU GLH *HVXQGKHLW 9JO 1DJHO 6 %HLP %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU %LOGXQJ XQG
)RUVFKXQJ VLQG YRU DOOHP GLH $EWHLOXQJHQ +RFKVFKXOHQ :LVVHQVFKDIWVI|UGHUXQJ XQG
*UXQGODJHQIRUVFKXQJ (QHUJLH XQG 8PZHOW XQG %LRZLVVHQVFKDIWHQ XQG ,QIRUPDWLRQV
WHFKQLN LQ GLHVHP =XVDPPHQKDQJ YRQ %HGHXWXQJ
(LQLJH GHQ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULHQ QDFKJHRUGQHWH %XQGHVREHUEHK|UGHQ QHKPHQ ZHLWHUH
6FKOVVHOUROOHQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ HLQ 'D]X ]lKOHQ
‡ GDV %XQGHVLQVWLWXW IU $U]QHLPLWWHO XQG 0HGL]LQSURGXNWH %I$U0 GLHQW GHU 9HU
EHVVHUXQJ GHU 6LFKHUKHLW YRQ $U]QHLPLWWHOQ XQG GHU 5LVLNREHUZDFKXQJ YRQ 0H
GL]LQSURGXNWHQ VRZLH GHU hEHUZDFKXQJ GHV %HWlXEXQJVPLWWHO XQG *UXQGVWRIIYHU
NHKUV
‡ GDV 5REHUW.RFK,QVWLWXW 5., X D *HVXQGKHLWVEHULFKWHUVWDWWXQJ
‡ GDV 3DXO(KUOLFK,QVWLWXW 3(, X D $U]QHLPLWWHOVLFKHUKHLW XQG 3UIXQJ =XODVVXQJ
XQG hEHUZDFKXQJ YRQ ,PSIVWRIIHQ
‡ GDV %XQGHVLQVWLWXW IU JHVXQGKHLWOLFKHQ 9HUEUDXFKHUVFKXW] XQG 9HWHULQlUPHGL]LQ
%J99 6LFKHUXQJ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVVFKXW]HV LP +LQEOLFN DXI /HEHQVPLWWHO 7DED
NHU]HXJQLVVH XQG NRVPHWLVFKH 0LWWHO
‡ GDV 'HXWVFKH ,QVWLWXW IU PHGL]LQLVFKH 'RNXPHQWDWLRQ XQG ,QIRUPDWLRQ ',0',
X D 6DPPOXQJ LQ XQG DXVOlQGLVFKH /LWHUDWXU XQG 'DWHQ DXV 0HGL]LQ XQG %LRZLV
24
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
‡
‡
‡
VHQVFKDIWHQ +HUDXVJDEH DPWOLFKHU .ODVVL¿NDWLRQHQ
GLH %XQGHV]HQWUDOH IU JHVXQGKHLWOLFKH $XINOlUXQJ %=J$ *HVXQGKHLWVHU]LHKXQJ
XQG *HVXQGKHLWVI|UGHUXQJ
GDV %XQGHVYHUVLFKHUXQJVDPW $XIVLFKW EHU 7UlJHU GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ XQG
GDV 8PZHOWEXQGHVDPW 8%$ X D %HLWUDJ ]XU ZLVVHQVFKDIWOLFKHQ *UXQGOHJXQJ
GHU 8PZHOWSROLWLN GHV %XQGHV
%LV DXI GDV 8PZHOWEXQGHVDPW ZHOFKHV ]XP *HVFKlIWVEHUHLFK GHV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXPV
IU 8PZHOW ]lKOW JHK|UHQ DOOH ,QVWLWXWLRQHQ ]XP *HVFKlIWVEHUHLFK GHV %0* 9JO 1D
JHO 6 II
„Die an der gesundheitlichen Versorgung der Bevölkerung Beteiligten sollen nach §5
SGB V medizinische und wirtschaftliche Orientierungsdaten entwickeln und Vorschläge
zur Erhöhung von Leistungsfähigkeit, Wirksamkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen erarbeiten.“ 1DJHO 6 'LHV JHVFKDK YRQ ELV LP 5DK
PHQ GHU Ä.RQ]HQWULHUWHQ $NWLRQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ³ .$L* PLW GHP =LHO HLQH EH
GDUIVJHUHFKWH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQ VLFKHU]XVWHOOHQ 9HUWUHWHU GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
bU]WH =DKQlU]WH .UDQNHQKDXVWUlJHU $SRWKHNHU $U]QHLPLWWHOKHUVWHOOHU $UEHLWJHEHUYHU
ElQGH *HZHUNVFKDIWHQ ZHUGHQ YRP %XQGHVJHVXQGKHLWVPLQLVWHU EHUXIHQ XQG HUDUEHLWHQ
(PSIHKOXQJHQ DOV (QWVFKHLGXQJVJUXQGODJH =XU 8QWHUVWW]XQJ KDW GHU 0LQLVWHU HLQHQ
Ä6DFKYHUVWlQGLJHQUDW IU GLH .RQ]HQWULHUWH $NWLRQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ³ EHUXIHQ GHP
VLHEHQ )DFKOHXWH DQJHK|UHQ YJO %HVNH+DOODXHU 6 $XV ,QWHUHVVHQNRQÀLNWHQ
GHU 9HUWUHWHU GHU XQWHUVFKLHGOLFKVWHQ %HUXIVJUXSSHQ ZXUGH GLH .$L* DXIJHO|VW XQG GXUFK
GHQ *HPHLQVDPHQ %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV *%$ GHP REHUVWHQ %HVFKOXVVJUHPLXP GHU JH
PHLQVDPHQ 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ GHU bU]WH =DKQlU]WH 3V\FKRWKHUDSHXWHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU
XQG .UDQNHQNDVVHQ HUVHW]W „Er bestimmt in Form von Richtlinien den Leistungskatalog
der gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung (GKV) für mehr als 70 Millionen Versicherte und
legt damit fest, welche Leistungen der medizinischen Versorgung von der GKV erstattet werden. Darüber hinaus beschließt der G-BA Maßnahmen der Qualitätssicherung
für den ambulanten und stationären Bereich des Gesundheitswesens.“ KWWSZZZJED
GH 'DV ,QVWLWXW IU 4XDOLWlW XQG :LUWVFKDIWOLFKNHLW LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ ,4:,* XQ
WHUVWW]W GHQ *%$ LQ VHLQHU (QWVFKHLGXQJV¿QGXQJ X D GXUFK %HZHUWXQJ YRQ %HKDQG
OXQJVYHUIDKUHQ GHV 1XW]HQV YRQ $U]QHLPLWWHOQ XQG ,QIRUPDWLRQ GHU gIIHQWOLFKNHLW EHU
GLH (IIHNWLYLWlW YRQ HUEUDFKWHQ /HLVWXQJHQ GHU *.9 YJO 1DJHO 6 ,QVWLWXWLRQHQ DXI /DQGHVHEHQH
'LH /lQGHU EHQ HEHQIDOOV HLQHQ JUR‰HQ (LQÀXVV DXI GLH *HVWDOWXQJ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZH
VHQV LQ 'HXWVFKODQG DXV X D GXUFK GLH 8PVHW]XQJ GHU %XQGHVJHVHW]H *HVHW]H N|QQHQ
HEHQIDOOV YRQ LKQHQ HUODVVHQ ZHUGHQ ZHQQ QLFKW GHU %XQG GLH *HVHW]JHEXQJVNRPSHWHQ]
EHVLW]W „Die Länder koordinieren ihre Arbeit im Gesundheitswesen durch die „Konferenz
der für das Gesundheitswesen zuständigen Ministerinnen und Minister, Senatorinnen und
Senatoren der Länder (Gesundheitsministerkonferenz, GMK).“ 1DJHO 6 I ,Q
25
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
KDOW GHU .RQIHUHQ]HQ VLQG YRU DOOHP 9RUVFKOlJH ]XU 2SWLPLHUXQJ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN
(PSIHKOXQJHQ ZHUGHQ DXVJHVSURFKHQ (LQH ZHLWHUH 2EHUVWH /DQGHVEHK|UGH QHEHQ GHU
*HVXQGKHLWVPLQLVWHUNRQIHUHQ] LVW GLH $UEHLWVJHPHLQVFKDIW GHU OHLWHQGHQ 0HGL]LQDOEH
DPWLQQHQ XQG ±EHDPWHQ GHU /lQGHU $*/0% ,KU JHK|UHQ GLH /HLWHU GHU *HVXQGKHLWV
DEWHLOXQJHQ GHU /DQGHVPLQLVWHULHQ DQ XQG HUDUEHLWHW ZHUGHQ %HVFKOVVH GLH GHU *0.
YRUJHOHJW ZHUGHQ YJO 1DJHO 6 6SH]LHOOH /DQGHVEHK|UGHQ GHUHQ $UEHLWVIHOG GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LVW VLQG GLYHUVH
8QWHUVXFKXQJVlPWHU ]XU 'XUFKIKUXQJ YRQ *HVXQGKHLWVYRUVFKULIWHQ $U]QHLPLWWHO
EHUZDFKXQJVVWHOOHQ X D hEHUZDFKXQJ GHU +HUVWHOOHU XQG *UR‰KDQGHOVEHWULHEH XQG
GLH /DQGHVJHVXQGKHLWVlPWHU 'DUEHU KLQDXV H[LVWLHUHQ *HPHLQVFKDIWVHLQULFKWXQJHQ GHU
/lQGHU GLH HLQH HLQKHLWOLFKH 5HJHOXQJ YRQ $XIJDEHQ JHZlKUOHLVWHQ VROOHQ 'D]X ]lK
OHQ $NDGHPLHQ IU |IIHQWOLFKHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ XQG GDV ,QVWLWXW IU PHGL]LQLVFKH XQG
SKDUPD]HXWLVFKH 3UIXQJVIUDJHQ ZHOFKHV 3UIXQJVIUDJHQ IU PHGL]LQLVFKH %HUXIH YRU
EHUHLWHW XQG DXVZHUWHW
=X GHQ NRPPXQDOHQ *HELHWVN|USHUVFKDIWHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV ]lKOHQ GLH *HVXQG
KHLWVlPWHU GLH ] % 3HUVRQHQ GLH LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DUEHLWHQ XQG *HVXQGKHLWVHLQ
ULFKWXQJHQ EHUZDFKHQ
'DV VR]LDOH 6LFKHUXQJVV\WHP
1DFKGHP GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ XQG =XVWlQGLJNHLWHQ DXVIKUOLFK GDUJHOHJW ZXUGHQ VROOHQ
DQVFKOLH‰HQG ZHVHQWOLFKH 0HUNPDOH XQG 3ULQ]LSLHQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJ EHVFKULHEHQ
ZHUGHQ
'DV 6\VWHP GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJ ELHWHW Ä>«@ ZLUNVDPHQ ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ 6FKXW] YRU GHQ
großen Lebensrisiken und deren Folgen wie Krankheit, Arbeitslosigkeit, Alter, BetriebsXQIlOOHQ XQG 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW 'LH 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ JDUDQWLHUW HLQHQ VWDELOHQ /Hbensstandard jedes Einzelnen und umfasst folgende Zweige, die als Versicherungsträger
RGHU 7UlJHU EH]HLFKQHW ZHUGHQ .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ 8QIDOOYHUsicherung, Rentenversicherung und Arbeitslosenversicherung.“ KWWSZZZGHXWVFKH
VR]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJGHGHZHJZHLVHUHLQIXHKUXQJKWPO
'DEHL EDXW GDV 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVV\VWHP DXI GUHL JUXQGOHJHQGH 3ULQ]LSLHQ DXI
‡ GHP 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSULQ]LS6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVSULQ]LS
‡ GHP 9HUVRUJXQJVSULQ]LS XQG
‡ GHP )UVRUJHSULQ]LS
„Unter Versicherungsprinzip versteht man die gegenseitige Absicherung gleichartig
Bedrohter durch Versicherungsleistungen, die über die Versicherungsbeiträge der MitJOLHGHU ¿QDQ]LHUW ZHUGHQ 'HP 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSULQ]LS OLHJW VRPLW GLH %HLWUDJV]DKOXQJ ]Xgrunde.“ 2\HQ/|KH 6 'LH HLQNRPPHQVDEKlQJLJHQ %HLWUlJH ZHUGHQ GDEHL
26
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
SDULWlWLVFK DXI $UEHLWJHEHU XQG $UEHLWQHKPHU YHUWHLOW $XVQDKPHQ HQWVWHKHQ EHL 6HOEVW
VWlQGLJHQ GLH VLFK IUHLZLOOLJ YHUVLFKHUQ XQG EHL 9HUVLFKHUWHQ PLW JHULQJHP (LQNRPPHQ
'DV 9HUVRUJXQJVSULQ]LS „[…] ist im weitesten Sinne Folge einer gesetzlich geregelten
VWDDWOLFKHQ )UVRUJHSÀLFKW IU GLHMHQLJHQ GLH LQ HLQHP |IIHQWOLFKHQ 'LHQVWYHUKlOWQLV VWHhen oder einen besonderen sozialrelevanten Status haben. Versorgung gründet sich also
auf einen besonderen Status (öffentlicher Dienst), auf besondere Leistungen im Dienste
der Allgemeinheit.“ 2\HQ/|KH 6 'HP 9HUVRUJXQJVSULQ]LS XQWHUOLHJHQ GHP
QDFK %HDPWH 5LFKWHU 3ROL]LVWHQ %HUXIVVROGDWHQ VR JHQDQQWH 6RQGHURSIHU DOVR .ULHJV
RSIHU XQG :HKUGLHQVWEHVFKlGLJWH XQG 3HUVRQHQ GLH DXIJUXQG EHVRQGHUHU 8PVWlQGH PHKU
6R]LDOOHLVWXQJHQ DOV $XVJOHLFK IU LKUH 6LWXDWLRQ HUKDOWHQ =X GLHVHQ /HLVWXQJHQ ]lKOHQ
GDV 0XWWHUVFKDIWVJHOG GDV (U]LHKXQJVJHOG :RKQJHOG XQG 8QWHUVWW]XQJHQ IU 6FKZHU
EHKLQGHUWH XQG 3HUVRQHQ LQ $XVELOGXQJ 9JO 2\HQ/|KH 6 'DV )UVRUJHSULQ]LS DOVR GLH 6R]LDOKLOIH KDW GLH $EZHQGXQJ LQGLYLGXHOOHU 1RWODJHQ ]XP
=LHO GLH GDQQ HQWVWHKHQ ZHQQ 3HUVRQHQ LKUHQ HLJHQHQ /HEHQVXQWHUKDOW QLFKW PHKU VL
FKHUQ N|QQHQ
„1970 beschloss die Bunderegierung, alle Bereiche des Sozialrechts, die sich für die Einordnung in ein einziges Gesetzgebungswerk eignen, nach einheitlichen Grundsätzen zu
überarbeiten und gesetzgeberisch zusammenzufassen.“ 1DJHO 6 ,Q]ZLVFKHQ
XPIDVVW GDV 6R]LDOJHVHW]EXFK ]Z|OI %FKHU LQ GHQHQ QHEHQ DOOJHPHLQHQ XQG YHUIDKUHQV
UHFKWOLFKHQ 5HJHOXQJHQ XQG JHPHLQVDPHQ 9RUVFKULIWHQ DOOH *HVHW]H GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKH
UXQJV]ZHLJH IRUPXOLHUW VLQG
.HQQ]HLFKQHQGH 0HUNPDOH GHU 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ VLQG GLH =ZDQJVPLWJOLHGVFKDIW ELV
]X HLQHU EHVWLPPWHQ (LQNRPPHQVJUHQ]H EHVWHKW 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW GLH QDKH]X SDUL
WlWLVFKH =DKOXQJ GHU HLQNRPPHQVDEKlQJLJHQ %HLWUlJH $UEHLWJHEHU XQG $UEHLWQHKPHU
]DKOHQDX‰HU EHL GHU 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ GLH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJVWUl
JHU GLH JUXQGVlW]OLFK JOHLFKHQ 3ÀLFKWOHLVWXQJHQ IU DOOH 0LWJOLHGHU XQG GHU 6DFKOHLV
WXQJVFKDUDNWHU GHU /HLVWXQJHQ /HLVWXQJHQ GHU VR] 6LFKHUXQJ LP .UDQNKHLWVIDOO ZHUGHQ
EHUZLHJHQG DOV 6DFKOHLVWXQJHQ JHZlKUW 9JO 2\HQ/|KH 6 II 7UlJHU GHU
6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ VLQG UHFKWVIlKLJH .|USHUVFKDIWHQ GHV |IIHQWOLFKHQ 5HFKWV 'LH )LQDQ
]LHUXQJ HUIROJW ]XP JU|‰WHQ 7HLO DXV %HLWUDJV]DKOXQJHQ VWDDWOLFKH =XVFKVVH VLQG DEHU
P|JOLFK 'LH %HLWUDJVVlW]H GHU 5HQWHQ 3ÀHJH $UEHLWVORVHQ XQG .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ
VLQG JHVHW]OLFK IHVWJHOHJW 'HU %HLWUDJ ]XU 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ GHU QXU YRP $UEHLWJHEHU
]X HQWULFKWHQ LVW EHVWLPPW VLFK QDFK GHP (QWJHOW XQG GHU 8QIDOOJHIDKU GHU DXVJHEWHQ
7lWLJNHLW YJO 1DJHO 6 'DV PRQDWOLFKH %UXWWRDUEHLWVHQWJHOW JLOW DOV %HLWUDJV
EHPHVVXQJVJUXQGODJH ZREHL +|FKVWEHWUlJH IHVWJHOHJW VLQG
'LH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ
'DV ZLFKWLJVWH 3ULQ]LS GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJ LP .UDQNKHLWVIDOO LVW GDV 6ROLGDUSULQ]LS
'DV EHGHXWHW GLH *HZlKUOHLVWXQJ JHJHQVHLWLJHU 8QWHUVWW]XQJ YRQ 0LWJOLHGHUQ GHU 6ROL
27
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
GDUJHPHLQVFKDIW 'LH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ JHOLQJW GXUFK HLQH 8PYHUWHLOXQJ DOOHU $XVJDEHQ IU
.UDQNHQEHKDQGOXQJHQ 6R ¿QGHQ LQ GHU *.9 6ROLGDUDXVJOHLFKH ]ZLVFKHQ *HVXQGHQ XQG
.UDQNHQ XQG %HVVHU XQG *HULQJYHUGLHQHUQ VWDWW $XFK GLH .RVWHQ GHU EHLWUDJVIUHL PLW
YHUVLFKHUWHQ )DPLOLHQDQJHK|ULJHQ ZHUGHQ GXUFK GHQ 6ROLGDUDXVJOHLFK ¿QDQ]LHUW 'HQQ
DXFK EHL GHQ *.9$XVJDEHQ JLOW GDV 3DUHWR3ULQ]LS GHQQ KLHU YHUXUVDFKHQ GHU
9HUVLFKHUWHQ GHU .RVWHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 I „Durch die Solidarausgleiche
soll auch erreicht werden, dass Krankheit nicht zu einer gravierenden Verschlechterung
des Lebensstandards oder gar Gefährdung der individuellen wirtschaftlichen Existenz
führt.“ 6LPRQ 6 $XV GHP *HVXQGKHLWVIRQGV GHU DXV GHQ %HLWUDJVHLQQDKPHQ
GHU .DVVHQ XQG 6WHXHUHLQQDKPHQ JHVSHLVW ZLUG ZHUGHQ DOOH /HLVWXQJHQ IU DOOH 9HUVL
FKHUWHQ ¿QDQ]LHUW „Die Krankenkassen erhalten vom Gesundheitsfonds eine einheitliche
Grundpauschale pro Versicherten plus alters-, geschlechts- und risikoadjustierte Zu- und
Abschläge zur Deckung ihrer standardisierten Leistungsausgaben.“ KWWSZZZEPJ
EXQGGHNUDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ¿QDQ]LHUXQJJHVXQGKHLWVIRQGVKWPO
(LQ ZHLWHUHV 3ULQ]LS GHP VLFK GLH VR]LDOH 6LFKHUXQJ EHGLHQW LVW GDV 6XEVLGLDULWlWVSULQ
]LS 'LHVHV EHVDJW GDVV ]XHUVW GLH 3HUVRQ VHOEVW IU EHVWLPPWH .RVWHQ DXINRPPW VRZHLW
HV LKU P|JOLFK LVW GDQQ GHU 3DUWQHU DQVFKOLH‰HQG GLH )DPLOLHQDQJHK|ULJHQ XQG ZHQQ
DXFK GHUHQ 0LWWHO HUVFK|SIW VLQG WUHWHQ GLH 0LWJOLHGHU GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJ XQG DOV OHW]WH
,QVWDQ] GLH *HPHLQVFKDIW GHU 6WDDWVEUJHU HLQ 9RU DOOHP EHL GHU 6R]LDOKLOIH ZLUG GLHVHV
3ULQ]LS DQJHZHQGHW YJO 6LPRQ 6 I
(EHQIDOOV HQWVFKHLGHQG LVW GDV %HGDUIVGHFNXQJVSULQ]LS ZHOFKHV EHVDJW GDVV GLH 9HU
VRUJXQJ GLH MHGHP 9HUVLFKHUWHQ ]XNRPPW EHGDUIVJHUHFKW LVW XQG GHP DNWXHOOHQ PHGL
]LQLVFKHQ 6WDQG HQWVSULFKW † $EV 6%* 9 'LH %HGDUIVGHFNXQJ JLOW YRU DOOHP IU
GLH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ GD LQ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ OHGLJOLFK GLH *UXQGYHUVRUJXQJ
JHZlKUOHLVWHW ZLUG
$P H[LVWLHUWHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG JHVHW]OLFKH XQG FD SULYDWH .UDQNHQ
NDVVHQ YJO KWWSZZZJNYVSLW]HQYHUEDQGGH,76*.UDQNHQNDVVHQ/LVWHJNYQHW
5XQG DOOHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUWHQ VLQG EHL GHU *.9 YHUVLFKHUW 'HU 5HVW YHUWHLOW VLFK
DXI GLH 3.9 DQGHUH ,QVWLWXWLRQHQ XQG ZHLVW NHLQHQ 9HUVLFKHUXQJVVFKXW]
DXI WURW] GHU YRUKHUUVFKHQGHQ 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW LQ 'HXWVFKODQG YJO 6LPRQ 6
„Die gesetzliche Krankenversicherung ist keine Versicherung im üblichen Sinn,
VRQGHUQ HLQH VSH]L¿VFKH 2UJDQLVDWLRQVIRUP GHUHU VLFK GHU 6WDDW EHGLHQW XP GLH LKP
vom Grundgesetz übertragene Aufgabe der Daseinsvorsorge für seine Bürger zu organisieren.“ 6LPRQ 6 'HU 6WDDW NRQWUROOLHUW GLH JHVHW]OLFKHQ XQG SULYDWHQ .UDQ
NHQNDVVHQ LQ GHU (UIOOXQJ LKUHU YRP 6WDDW EHUWUDJHQHQ $XIJDEHQ „Die gesetzlichen
Krankenkassen sind selbstverwaltete Körperschaften des öffentlichen Rechts.“ 6LPRQ
6 .UDQNHQNDVVHQ VLQG SHU *HVHW] †† 6*% 9 GD]X YHUSÀLFKWHW 6WHOOXQJVQDKPHQ
GHV 0HGL]LQLVFKHQ 'LHQVWHV GHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ 0'. HLQ]XKROHQ 'LHV JHVFKLHKW
] % ZHQQ $UEHLWJHEHU GLH $UEHLWVXQIlKLJNHLW GHV $UEHLWQHKPHUV DQ]ZHLIHOQ 'HU 0'.
28
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
KDW DEHU DXFK GLH $XIJDEH GDV 9RUKDQGHQVHLQ HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW XQG GLH (LQVWX
IXQJ LQ 3ÀHJHVWXIHQ YRU /HLVWXQJVJHZlKUXQJ GXUFK GLH 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ ]X SUIHQ %HLP
0'. KDQGHOW HV VLFK XP HLQH *HPHLQVFKDIWVHLQULFKWXQJ GHU /DQGHVYHUElQGH GHU *.9
GHU DXV HLQHU 8PODJH DOOHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ ¿QDQ]LHUW ZLUG %HLP 0'. DUEHLWHQ YRUZLH
JHQG bU]WH XQG 3ÀHJHNUlIWH 9JO 6LPRQ 6 I
'HU † 6*% 9 EHVFKUHLEW GLH $XIJDEHQ GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ GLH LQ GHU (UKDOWXQJ XQG
:LHGHUKHUVWHOOXQJ GHU *HVXQGKHLW XQG %HUDWXQJ EHVWHKHQ 8P GLH $XIJDEHQ HUIOOHQ ]X
N|QQHQ ZHUGHQ /HLVWXQJHQ JHZlKUW ] % ]XU 9HUKWXQJ XQG %HKDQGOXQJ YRQ .UDQN
KHLWHQ VLHKH † 6*% 9 8P /HLVWXQJHQ ]X HUKDOWHQ PXVV PDQ YHUVLFKHUW VHLQ ZDV
GXUFK $XIQDKPH HLQHU DEKlQJLJHQ %HVFKlIWLJXQJ GHU )DOO LVW RGHU GXUFK HLQH IUHLZLOOL
JH 9HUVLFKHUXQJ 3HUVRQHQ REHUKDOE GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWJUHQ]H PVVHQ VLFK QLFKW LQ
GHU *.9 YHUVLFKHUQ N|QQHQ HV DEHU IUHLZLOOLJ WXQ 'LH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWJUHQ]H OLHJW
EHL ¼ YJO KWWSZZZFHFXGHYHUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWJUHQ]HKWPO (EHQIDOOV
QLFKW YHUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWLJ VLQG %HDPWH 5LFKWHU 6ROGDWHQ *HLVWOLFKH /HKUHU LQ 3UL
YDWVFKXOHQ 3HQVLRQlUH 3HUVRQHQ LQ EHDPWHQlKQOLFKHU 6WHOOXQJ 6HOEVWVWlQGLJH $XVQDK
PHQ /DQGZLUWH .QVWOHU 3XEOL]LVWHQ )DPLOLHQPLWJOLHGHU (KHSDUWQHU XQG .LQGHU ELV
EHL $XVELOGXQJ ELV VLQG LQ GHU *.9 EHLWUDJVIUHL PLWYHUVLFKHUW 3ÀLFKWYHUVLFKHUWH
KDEHQ GLH :DKO ]ZLVFKHQ GHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG )U GLH .DVVHQ JLOW
.RQWUDKLHUXQJV]ZDQJ ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV MHGHU GHU HLQHQ $QWUDJ DXI 9HUVLFKHUXQJ VWHOOW
DXIJHQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ PXVV YJO 6LPRQ 6 II
:LH VFKRQ HUZlKQW KHUUVFKW GDV 6DFKOHLVWXQJVSULQ]LS YRU G K /HLVWXQJHQ ZHUGHQ YRU
ZLHJHQG DOV 6DFKOHLVWXQJHQ XQG QLFKW DOV *HOGOHLVWXQJHQ HUEUDFKW /HW]WHUH ZHUGHQ DEHU
DXFK JHZlKUW YRU DOOHP LP 5DKPHQ GHV .UDQNHQJHOGHV =XU (UIOOXQJ GHU /HLVWXQJHQ
ZHUGHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH PLW /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHUQ DEJHVFKORVVHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ ¿
QDQ]LHUHQ VLFK DXV GHQ %HLWUlJHQ GHU 0LWJOLHGHU XQG ]X HLQHP NOHLQHQ 7HLO DXV %XQGHV
]XVFKVVHQ %HLWUlJH ZHUGHQ SDULWlWLVFK YRQ $UEHLWJHEHU XQG $UEHLWQHKPHU JH]DKOW GHU
%HLWUDJVVDW] OLHJW PRPHQWDQ EHL GHV %UXWWRHQWJHOWHV YJO 6LPRQ 6 „Der Gesundheitsfonds ist der institutionelle Ort, an den die Beitragseinnahmen aller
Krankenkassen sowie der Bundeszuschuss überwiesen werden, eine Art Gemeinschaftskonto der Krankenkassen bei der Bundesbank.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH .DVVHQ HU
KDOWHQ GLH %HLWUlJH LKUHU 0LWJOLHGHU PVVHQ VLH DEHU DQ GHQ *HVXQGKHLWVIRQGV GHU YRP
%XQGHVYHUVLFKHUXQJVDPW YHUZDOWHW ZLUG EHUZHLVHQ GHU GDQQ ZLHGHUXP %HWUlJH ]XU
'HFNXQJ ODXIHQGHU $XVJDEHQ MH 9HUVLFKHUWHQ QDFK EHVWLPPWHQ 9RUJDEHQ ]XUFN EHU
ZHLVW „Diese Regeln und Kriterien bilden in ihrer Gesamtheit den neuen, morbiditätsorientierten Risikostrukturausgleich.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH $XVJDEHQ GHU *.9 QDKPHQ GHU *HVDPWDXVJDEHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV
HLQ 'LH (UZHLWHUXQJ GHV 9HUVLFKHUWHQNUHLVHV VWHOOW LPPHU ZLHGHU HLQH 0D‰QDKPH GDU GLH
(LQQDKPHQ ZHLWHU ]X PHKUHQ 'D GLH *HVHW]OLFKHQ .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJHQ PRPHQWDQ
DEHU HLQHQ *HZLQQ YRQ FD 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ KDEHQ VWHKHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ
]XU (UK|KXQJ GHU (LQQDKPHQ QLFKW ]XU 'HEDWWH VRQGHUQ HKHU GLH )UDJH QDFK GHU 6HQ
NXQJ GHU %HLWUlJH GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQ YJO KWWSZZZZGUGHVHQGXQJHQWDJHVJHVSUDHFK
VGEGLHNUDQNHQNDVVHQPDFKHQKRKHJHZLQQHKWPO
29
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH 3ULYDWH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZHLVW XQWHUVFKLHGOLFKH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVEHGLQJXQJHQ
]XU *.9 DXI 9HUVLFKHUQ ODVVHQ N|QQHQ VLFK DOOH GLH QLFKW YHUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWLJ LQ GHU
*.9 VLQG DOVR ] % $UEHLWQHKPHU GHUHQ (LQNRPPHQ EHU GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW
JUHQ]H OLHJW (QWVFKHLGHQG LVW GDVV GLH %HLWUlJH DXI *UXQGODJH GHV bTXLYDOHQ]SULQ]LSV LQ
9HUELQGXQJ PLW GHP $QZDUWVFKDIWVGHFNXQJ E]Z .DSLWDOGHFNXQJVYHUIDKUHQ EHUHFKQHW
ZHUGHQ 'LHV EHGHXWHW GDVV GLH ]X ]DKOHQGHQ %HWUlJH QHEHQ GHP %HLWUDJVWHLO IU GLH ODX
IHQGHQ .UDQNKHLWVNRVWHQ 5LVLNREHLWUDJ HLQHQ 5FNVWHOOXQJVDQWHLO EHLQKDOWHQ PLW GHP
]XNQIWLJH .UDQNKHLWVDXIZHQGXQJHQ LP $OWHU YRU¿QDQ]LHUW ZHUGHQ 'LHVH VR JHQDQQWHQ
$OWHUVUFNVWHOOXQJHQ ZHUGHQ YHU]LQVOLFK DQJHVDPPHOW YJO %RHFNK+XVWHU%HQ] 6 'D GHU 6FKDGHQEHGDUI LP $OWHU DQVWHLJW ZHUGHQ DXIJUXQG GHV $QZDUWVFKDIWV
GHFNXQJVYHUIDKUHQV LQ MQJHUHQ -DKUHQ K|KHUH %HLWUlJH HUKREHQ DOV HLJHQWOLFK ]XU 'H
FNXQJ GHU .RVWHQ Q|WLJ ZlUHQ 'LHVH $OWHUVUFNVWHOOXQJHQ ZHUGHQ DE HLQHP EHVWLPPWHQ
$OWHU ]XU 6WDELOLVLHUXQJ GHU %HLWUlJH DEJHEDXW )U $QWUDJVWHOOHU PLW 9RUHUNUDQNXQJHQ
N|QQHQ 5LVLNR]XVFKOlJH HUKREHQ ZHUGHQ RGHU DEHU VLH ZHUGHQ JDQ] DEJHOHKQW ZDV EH
GHXWHW GDVV LQ GHU 3.9 ELV DXI GHQ %DVLVWDULI NHLQ .RQWUDKLHUXQJV]ZDQJ JLOW YJO 6LPRQ
6 (LQ ZHLWHUHU ZHVHQWOLFKHU 8QWHUVFKLHG ]XU *.9 LVW GHU GDVV /HLVWXQJHQ
QDFK GHP .RVWHQHUVWDWWXQJVSULQ]LS JHZlKUW ZHUGHQ $U]W /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHU XQG 3D
WLHQW 9HUVLFKHUWHU GHPQDFK 9HUWUDJVSDUWQHU VLQG 'LH 3.9 VFKOLH‰W NHLQH 9HUWUlJH PLW
GHQ /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHUQ VRQGHUQ HUVWDWWHW GHP 9HUVLFKHUWHQ /HLVWXQJHQ MH QDFK JHZlKO
WHP 7DULI 5HFKQXQJHQ ZHUGHQ DXI %DVLV GHU *HEKUHQRUGQXQJ IU bU]WH *2b „Je
nach Schwierigkeitsgrad der Leistung und des Zeitaufwandes kann bis zum 2,3-Fachen
des GOÄ-Satzes in Rechnung gestellt werden, für überdurchschnittlich aufwendige Behandlungen sogar bis zum 3,5-Fachen.“ 6LPRQ 6 0LW GHU 9HUDEVFKLHGXQJ GHV *.9:6* ZXUGH GHU %DVLVWDULI HLQJHIKUW GHU YRQ DOOHQ
9HUVLFKHUXQJVXQWHUQHKPHQ VHLW GHP DQJHERWHQ ZHUGHQ PXVV )U LKQ JHOWHQ
IROJHQGH 0HUNPDOH
‡ /HLVWXQJVXPIDQJ HQWVSULFKW GHP GHU *.9
‡ brancheneinheitlich,
‡ .RQWUDKLHUXQJV]ZDQJ
‡ 5LVLNRSUIXQJ QLFKW HUODXEW
‡ %HLWUDJ GDUI +|FKVWEHLWUDJ EHL *.9 QLFKW EHUVFKUHLWHQ
‡ %HLWUDJ HLQKHLWOLFK ]X NDONXOLHUHQ IU DOOH 8QWHUQHKPHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 I
)UDJOLFK LVW ZLH GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ ZHLWHU JHKHQ ZLUG GD EHUHLWV DP %DVLVWDULI GHXWOLFK
ZLUG GDVV (OHPHQWH GHU *.9 LQ GLH 3.9 HLQJHIKUW ZHUGHQ
'LH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
,P -DKU ZXUGH GLH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ HLQJHIKUW XP GLH %HY|ONHUXQJ JHJHQ GDV
5LVLNR HLQHU DXIWUHWHQGHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW DE]XVLFKHUQ XQG GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ %HWURIIH
QHU ]X YHUEHVVHUQ =XYRU PXVVWHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH GLH .RVWHQ LKUHU 9HUVRUJXQJ VHOEVW
WUDJHQ E]Z LKUH $QJHK|ULJHQ 5HLFKWH GDV *HOG QLFKW DXV NRQQWHQ GLH /HLVWXQJHQ GHU
6R]LDOKLOIH LQ $QVSUXFK JHQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ 'LH 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKW GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKH
30
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
UXQJ IROJW GHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ XQG LVW HEHQVR 3ÀLFKW IU DOOH %UJHU „Träger der
VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ VLQG GLH QHX JHJUQGHWHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ GLH EHL GHQ .UDQNHQkassen angesiedelt wurden (§1 Abs. 3 SGB XI).“ 6LPRQ 6 -HGH .UDQNHQNDV
VH ZXUGH GD]X YHUSÀLFKWHW HLQH 3ÀHJHNDVVH HLQ]XULFKWHQ ZREHL GHU 9HUZDOWXQJVUDW XQG
GHU 9RUVWDQG GHU .UDQNHQNDVVH DXFK IU GLH 3ÀHJHNDVVH ]XVWlQGLJ VLQG XQG 0LWDUEHLWHU
GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ DXFK IU GLH 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ DUEHLWHQ 2UJDQOHLKH 'LH 3ÀHJHYHUVL
FKHUXQJ KDW GHQ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ XQG PXVV EHGDUIVJHUHFKWH XQG GHP DQHUNDQQWHQ
6WDQG GHU PHGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ HQWVSUHFKHQGH /HLVWXQJHQ HUEULQJHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFK
WXQJHQ XQG 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ VFKOLH‰HQ 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH XQG 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ VLQG HEHQIDOOV
ZLH .UDQNHQNDVVHQ .|USHUVFKDIWHQ GHV |IIHQWOLFKHQ 5HFKWV PLW PLWWHOEDUHU 6HOEVWYHU
ZDOWXQJ YJO 6LPRQ 6 I :HLWHUH 0HUNPDOH GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ VLQG
GLH HLQNRPPHQVDEKlQJLJH QDKH]X SDULWlWLVFKH %HLWUDJV]DKOXQJ YRQ 9HUVLFKHUWHP XQG
$UEHLWJHEHU GDV 6DFKOHLVWXQJVSULQ]LS XQG GLH SULYDWH )DPLOLHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ $QGHUV DOV
EHL GHU *.9 JLEW HV NHLQ %HGDUIVGHFNXQJVSULQ]LS G K HV ZLUG QXU GLH *UXQGYHUVRUJXQJ
¿QDQ]LHUW DOOHV GDUEHU KLQDXV YRU DOOHP .RVWHQ GHU 8QWHUNXQIW XQG 9HUSÀHJXQJ PXVV
YRP 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ VHOEVW JHWUDJHQ ZHUGHQ 2E HLQ 9HUVLFKHUWHU /HLVWXQJHQ EHNRPPW
HQWVFKHLGHW QDFK $QWUDJVWHOOXQJ GHV 9HUVLFKHUWHQ GLH 3ÀHJHNDVVH DXI *UXQGODJH HLQHV
*XWDFKWHQV GHV 0'. 'HU † 6*% ;, GH¿QLHUW GHQ 7HUPLQXV 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW :LUG
GLH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW HLQHV 9HUVLFKHUWHQ DQHUNDQQW RUGQHW GHU 0'. HLQH 3ÀHJHVWXIH
]X QDFK GHU VLFK GLH ]X HUEULQJHQGHQ /HLVWXQJHQ ULFKWHQ † 6*% ;, 3ULYDWH 3ÀHJH
YHUVLFKHUXQJHQ KDEHQ HLQHQ VHSDUDWHQ %HJXWDFKWXQJVGLHQVW 'LH %HLWUlJH GUIHQ QLFKW
K|KHU VHLQ DOV EHL GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ DOOHUGLQJV LVW HLQH 6WDIIHOXQJ QDFK
*HVXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG HUODXEW YJO 6LPRQ 6 Ä'LH VR]LDOH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
JHZlKUW LKUHQ 9HUVLFKHUWHQ LP )DOOH YRQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW 'LHQVW 6DFK XQG *HOGOHLVWXQJHQ LQVEHVRQGHUH IU GLH *UXQGSÀHJH XQG KDXVZLUWVFKDIWOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ³ 6LPRQ
6 'HU † 6*% ;, IDVVW DOOH /HLVWXQJHQ ]XVDPPHQ GLH JHZlKUW ZHUGHQ
*UXQGVlW]OLFK VROO GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH P|JOLFKVW ODQJH LQ VHLQHP KlXVOLFKHQ 8PIHOG
JHSÀHJW ZHUGHQ HV JLOW GHU 9RUUDQJ GHU KlXVOLFKHQ 3ÀHJH † 6*% ;, ZHVKDOE 3ÀHJH
personen4 EHVRQGHUV XQWHUVWW]W ZHUGHQ VLH VLQG ] % XQIDOO XQG UHQWHQYHUVLFKHUW (UVW
ZHQQ GLH KlXVOLFKH 3ÀHJH QLFKW PHKU DXVUHLFKW NDQQ .XU]]HLWSÀHJH 8QWHUEULQJXQJ
LQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJ ELV ]X :RFKHQ LP -DKU GDQQ WHLOVWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH 7DJHV RGHU
1DFKWSÀHJH XQG VFKOLH‰OLFK YROOVWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH K %HWUHXXQJ EHDQWUDJW ZHUGHQ
'XUFK *HVHW]HVUHIRUPHQ IDQGHQ :HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJHQ VWDWW GLH LQ .DSLWHO JHQDXHU
HUOlXWHUW ZHUGHQ
=ZLVFKHQ GHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ ¿QGHW HLQ )LQDQ]DXVJOHLFK VWDWW GHU YRP %XQGHVYHUVLFKH
UXQJVDPW GXUFKJHIKUW ZLUG /HLVWXQJVDXVJDEHQ XQG 9HUZDOWXQJVNRVWHQ ZHUGHQ YRQ DO
OHQ .DVVHQ QDFK GHP 9HUKlOWQLV LKUHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQ JHPHLQVDP JHWUDJHQ YJO 6LPRQ
6 6HLW OLHJHQ GLH $XVJDEHQ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ EHU GHQ (LQQDKPHQ GLH QXU GXUFK
4 Ä3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ LP 6LQQH GLHVHV %XFKHV VLQG 3HUVRQHQ GLH QLFKW HUZHUEVPl‰LJ HLQHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ LP 6LQQH GHV † LQ VHLQHU KlXVOLFKHQ 8PJHEXQJ SÀHJHQ /HLVWXQJHQ ]XU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJ QDFK
† HUKlOW HLQH 3ÀHJHSHUVRQ QXU GDQQ ZHQQ VLH HLQH SÀHJHEHGUIWLJH 3HUVRQ ZHQLJVWHQV 6WXQGHQ
Z|FKHQWOLFK SÀHJW³ † 6*% ;,
31
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
.DSLWDOELOGXQJ $QIDQJ GLH HUVWHQ 0RQDWH GHV -DKUHV ZXUGHQ QXU %HLWUlJH JH]DKOW
DEHU NHLQH /HLVWXQJHQ JHZlKUW JHGHFNW ZHUGHQ NRQQWHQ $OV 8UVDFKHQ GHU 3UREOHPH
ZHUGHQ GLH XQWHUSURSRUWLRQDOH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU EHLWUDJVSÀLFKWLJHQ (LQQDKPHQ DQJHVH
KHQ XQG QDWUOLFK GLH VWHLJHQGHQ $XVJDEHQ DXIJUXQG GHU ]XQHKPHQGHQ =DKO 3ÀHJHEH
GUIWLJHU YJO 6LPRQ 6 %DVLVGDWHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV
)LQDQ]LHUXQJ
:LH EHUHLWV EHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ GLH $XVJDEHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV EHUZLHJHQG DXV
GHQ 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVEHLWUlJHQ ¿QDQ]LHUW &LUFD GHU $XVJDEHQ ZHUGHQ
EHU 6WHXHUQ ¿QDQ]LHUW YRU DOOHP .RVWHQ GHU |IIHQWOLFKHQ 9HUZDOWXQJ XQG GHV |IIHQWOL
FKHQ *HVXQGKHLWVGLHQVWHV YJO 6LPRQ 6 I „Aus den Beiträgen der gesetzliFKHQ XQG SULYDWHQ .UDQNHQ XQG 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZHUGHQ YRU DOOHP GLH 9HUJWXQJHQ
der Leistungserbringer, Kosten der Arznei-, Heil- und Hilfsmittel und Geldleistungen für
9HUVLFKHUWH ¿QDQ]LHUW³ 6LPRQ 6 /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJXQJ
„Die Leistungserbringung erfolgt im deutschen Gesundheitssystem durch öffentliche,
freigemeinnützige und private Einrichtungen.“ 6LPRQ 6 gIIHQWOLFKH 7UlJHU
VLQG GHU %XQG /lQGHU *HPHLQGHQ RGHU LP )DOO GHU 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ DXFK 6R]LDO
YHUVLFKHUXQJVWUlJHU )UHLJHPHLQQW]LJH 7UlJHU ZLH :RKOIDKUWVYHUElQGH RGHU NLUFKOLFKH
7UlJHU EHUQHKPHQ KHXW]XWDJH HEHQIDOOV HLQH JUR‰H 5ROOH 'LH =DKO SULYDWHU /HLVWXQJVHU
EULQJHU VWHLJW DOOHUGLQJV VWHWLJ DXFK ZHLO GLH VWHLJHQGHQ .RVWHQ YRQ GHQ NQDSSHQ +DXV
KDOWVPLWWHOQ GHU .RPPXQHQ QLFKW PHKU JHWUDJHQ ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ
:LH IXQNWLRQLHUW GLH /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJXQJ" $XI GHU %DVLV VWDDWOLFKHU 9RUVFKULIWHQ VFKOLH
‰HQ .RVWHQWUlJHU ] % .UDQNHQNDVVHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH PLW /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJHUQ ]
% bU]WH RGHU .UDQNHQKDXVWUlJHU GLH VLFK ]XU %HKDQGOXQJ GHU 9HUVLFKHUWHQ YHUSÀLFK
WHQ 'LH .RVWHQWUlJHU ZLHGHUXP HUVWDWWHQ GLH .RVWHQ GHU HUEUDFKWHQ /HLVWXQJHQ XQG GLH
9HUVLFKHUWHQ HQWULFKWHQ %HLWUlJH XQG HUKDOWHQ EHL %HGDUI /HLVWXQJHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 32
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
$EELOGXQJ /HLVWXQJVHUEULQJXQJ 6LPRQ 6 $PEXODQWH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ
„Die ambulante ärztliche und zahnärztliche Versorgung erfolgt in Deutschland fast ausschließlich durch niedergelassene Ärzte und Zahnärzte.“ 6LPRQ 6 1LHGHU
JHODVVHQH bU]WH IKUHQ 'LDJQRVWLNHQ GXUFK WKHUDSLHUHQ XQG ZHLVHQ EHL %HGDUI LQV .UDQ
NHQKDXV HLQ 'LH YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ NDQQ QXU GXUFK YRQ GHU *.9 ]XJHODVVHQH
9HUWUDJVlU]WH JHVFKHKHQ :LUG HLQ $U]W QLFKW PHKU ]XJHODVVHQ ZHLO IU HLQ *HELHW =X
ODVVXQJVVSHUUHQ H[LVWLHUHQ G K GLH IHVWJHOHJWH $U]W]DKO MH (LQZRKQHU LQ GHP EHWUHIIHQ
GHQ =XODVVXQJVEH]LUN EHUVFKULWWHQ ZXUGH GDUI HU DXVVFKOLH‰OLFK 3ULYDWSDWLHQWHQ RGHU
VHOEVW]DKOHQGH *.99HUVLFKHUWH EHKDQGHOQ $OOH 9HUWUDJVlU]WH VLQG 0LWJOLHGHU LQ HLQHU
.DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJ .9 „Kassenärztliche Vereinigungen (KVn) sind durch
Gesetz geschaffene Körperschaften des öffentlichen Rechts. Sie haben den gesetzlichen
Auftrag, hoheitliche – also staatliche – Aufgaben in der ambulanten ärztlichen Versorgung wahrzunehmen und unterliegen staatlicher Aufsicht.“ 6LPRQ 6 0HUNPDOH GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ VLQG
‡ 1LHGHUODVVXQJVIUHLKHLW GHU bU]WH
‡ IUHLH $U]WZDKO GHU 3DWLHQWHQ
‡ hEHUWUDJXQJ ]HQWUDOHU $XIJDEHQ DXI .DVVHQlU]WOLFKH 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ
‡ %HGDUIVSODQXQJ XQG =XODVVXQJVEHJUHQ]XQJHQ
‡ *OLHGHUXQJ LQ KDXVlU]WOLFKH XQG IDFKlU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ
‡ *UXSSHQYHUKDQGOXQJHQ ]ZLVFKHQ .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ XQG .UDQNHQ
NDVVHQ
‡ JHPHLQVDPH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ GXUFK .DVVHQlU]WOLFKH 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ XQG .UDQNHQ
NDVVHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LH 1LHGHUODVVXQJVIUHLKHLW UHVXOWLHUW DXV GHP *UXQGUHFKW MHGHV %UJHUV DXI IUHLH %HUXIV
33
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
ZDKO LVW DEHU ZLH VFKRQ HUZlKQW YRQ GHQ =XODVVXQJVVSHUUHQ DEKlQJLJ 'LH .9Q KDEHQ
GHQ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ ]X HUIOOHQ XQG VLQG 9HUKDQGOXQJVSDUWQHU GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
ZDV ] % 9HUJWXQJHQ DQJHKW 'LHVH QHKPHQ VLH GDQQ LQ (PSIDQJ XQG OHLWHQ VLH DQ GLH
9HUWUDJVlU]WH ZHLWHU 'LH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ † $EV 6*% 9 VWHOOW HLQHQ ZHVHQWOLFKHQ
)DNWRU LQ GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GDU GD KLHUPLW 8QWHU XQG hEHUYHUVRUJXQJ YHUKLQ
GHUW ZHUGHQ VROOHQ )U GLH 3ODQXQJ ZXUGHQ YLHU 5HJLRQVW\SHQ PLW ]HKQ 8QWHUW\SHQ JH
ELOGHW „Für jede dieser Arten von Regionen wurden Verhältniszahlen für das Verhältnis
YRQ (LQZRKQHUQ MH $U]W IU $U]WJUXSSHQ IHVWJHOHJW GLH DOV 6ROOJU|‰H IU GLH =XODVVXQJ
von Vertragsärzten zu Grunde zu legen sind.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH YLHU 5HJLRQV XQG 8QWHUW\SHQ HUJHEHQ VLFK ZLH IROJW
5HJLRQVW\S Agglomerationsräume
'LHVHU 5HJLRQVW\S XPIDVVW 5HJLRQHQ PLW 2EHU]HQWUHQ YRQ PHKU DOV (LQ
ZRKQHUQ RGHU HLQHU %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH YRQ EHU (LQZRKQHUNPð
'LH 8QWHUW\SHQ JOLHGHUQ VLFK LQ
‡ .HUQVWlGWH NUHLVIUHLH 6WlGWH PLW PHKU DOV (LQZRKQHUQ 2UGQXQJV
QXPPHU ‡ +RFKYHUGLFKWHWH .UHLVH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH OLHJW EHL (LQZRKQHUQNPð
XQG PHKU 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU ‡ 9HUGLFKWHWH .UHLVH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH ]ZLVFKHQ XQG (LQZRKQHUQ
NPð 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU ‡ /lQGOLFKH .UHLVH .UHLVH XQG .UHLVUHJLRQHQ PLW HLQHU 'LFKWH XQWHU (NPð
2UGQXQJVQXPPHU 5HJLRQVW\S verstädterte Räume
+LHUXQWHU ]lKOHQ 2EHU]HQWUHQ PLW EHU (LQZRKQHUQ RGHU HLQHU %HY|ONH
UXQJVGLFKWH YRQ EHU (LQZRKQHUQNPð 'LH 0LQGHVWGLFKWH OLHJW EHL (LQ
ZRKQHUQNPð
)ROJHQGH 8QWHUW\SHQ ZHUGHQ KLHU GLIIHUHQ]LHUW
‡ .HUQVWlGWH NUHLVIUHLH 6WlGWH PLW PHKU DOV (LQZRKQHUQ 2UGQXQJV
QXPPHU ‡ YHUGLFKWHWH .UHLVH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH YRQ (LQZRKQHUNPð 2UGQXQJV
QXPPHU ‡ OlQGOLFKH .UHLVH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH XQWHU (LQZRKQHUNPð 2UGQXQJV
QXPPHU 5HJLRQVW\S ländliche Räume
:HQLJHU DOV (LQZRKQHUNPð XQG 2EHU]HQWUHQ PLW ZHQLJHU DOV (LQ
ZRKQHUQ VRZLH 5HJLRQHQ PLW 2EHU]HQWUHQ YRQ EHU (LQZRKQHUQ XQG HLQHU
'LFKWH XP RGHU XQWHU (LQZRKQHUNPð ZHUGHQ KLHU HLQJHRUGQHW
)ROJHQGH 8QWHUW\SHQ ZHUGHQ JHELOGHW
‡ /lQGOLFKH .UHLVH K|KHUHU 'LFKWH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH YRQ (LQZRKQHUQ
NPð XQG PHKU 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU 34
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
‡
/lQGOLFKH .UHLVH JHULQJHUHU 'LFKWH %HY|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH XQWHU (LQZRK
QHUQNPð 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU 5HJLRQVW\S 6RQGHUUHJLRQHQ
‡ .UHLVIUHLH 6WlGWH XQG /DQGNUHLVH GHV 5XKUJHELHWV 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU YJO *HPHLQVDPHU %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV 6 I 'LH 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUV5 JHK|UHQ JUR‰WHLOV ]XP 5HJLRQVW\S PLW 2UGQXQJVQXPPHU VR ] % GHU .UHLV 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH PLW HLQHU %H
Y|ONHUXQJVGLFKWH YRQ (LQZRKQHUQNPð
/LHJW GLH $U]WGLFKWH EHU IU HLQHQ 5HJLRQVW\S ZHUGHQ =XODVVXQJVVSHUUHQ HUODVVHQ
RGHU EHL ZHQLJHU DOV 0D‰QDKPHQ HUJULIIHQ XP bU]WH ]X HUPXWLJHQ VLFK QLHGHU]X
ODVVHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 $EELOGXQJ $PEXODQWH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 6LPRQ 6 =X GHQ 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKHQ ]lKOHQ GLH 6WDGW 5RVWRFN GLH /DQGNUHLVH %DG 'REHUDQ 'HPPLQ *VWURZ
/XGZLJVOXVW 0ULW] 3DUFKLP 5JHQ XQG 8HFNHU5DQGRZ XQG GLH .UHLVUHJLRQHQ *UHLIVZDOG2VWYRU
SRPPHUQ 1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] 6WUDOVXQG1RUGYRUSRPPHUQ XQG 6FKZHULQ:LVPDU
1RUGZHVWPHFNOHQEXUJ
35
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
„Im Jahre 2010 ist die Gesamtzahl der bei den Landesärztekammern gemeldeten ÄrzWLQQHQ XQG bU]WH DXI JHVWLHJHQ³ KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJH
DVS"KLV 'DYRQ ZDUHQ DPEXODQW WlWLJ VWDWLRQlU LQ %HK|UGHQ RGHU .|USHUVFKDIWHQ XQG LQ DQGHUHQ %HUHLFKHQ bU]WH EHQ
NHLQH lU]WOLFKH 7lWLJNHLW DXV 8QWHU GHQ DPEXODQW WlWLJHQ bU]WHQ EH¿QGHQ VLFK 3UL
YDWlU]WH 9HUWUDJVlU]WH +DXV XQG )DFKlU]WH XQG DQJH
VWHOOWH bU]WH YJO KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHVSHFLDOGRZQORDGV6WDW$EELO
GXQJVWHLOSGI
'LH DPEXODQWH 9HUVRUJXQJ ¿QGHW PHLVW LQ (LQ]HOSUD[HQ VWDWW DEHU DXFK 3UD[LVJHPHLQ
schaften6 *HPHLQVFKDIWVSUD[HQ7 XQG 0HGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ 09= VLQG
YRUKDQGHQ „Medizinische Versorgungszentren sind ärztlich geleitete fachübergreifende
Einrichtungen, in denen mindestens zwei Ärzte unterschiedlicher Fachgebiete als Vertragsärzte oder angestellte Ärzte tätig sind.“ 6LPRQ 6 ,P -DKU JDE HV
09=µ PLW EHVFKlIWLJWHQ bU]WHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LH $XVJDEHQ GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ ZHUGHQ EHUZLHJHQG YRQ GHU *.9
JHWUDJHQ $Q ]ZHLWHU 6WHOOH OLHJW GLH 3.9 XQG ]XOHW]W SULYDWH +DXVKDOWH YRU DOOHP GXUFK
=X]DKOXQJHQ 'LH 9HUJWXQJVIRUP XQWHUVFKHLGHW VLFK QDFK )LQDQ]LHUXQJVWUlJHU G K
*.9 3ULYDWSDWLHQWHQ XQG EULJH 6R]LDOOHLVWXQJVWUlJHU 'LH *.9 UHFKQHW /HLVWXQJHQ LQ
)RUP GHU PRUELGLWlWVEHGLQJWHQ *HVDPWYHUJWXQJ DE 'D]X ]DKOW VLH HLQH 3DXVFKDOH MH
0LWJOLHG DQ GLH .9Q =XU %HUHFKQXQJ GHU *HVDPWYHUJWXQJ ZHUGHQ VR JHQDQQWH (%0
3XQNWH JHELOGHW (LQKHLWOLFKHU %HZHUWXQJVPD‰VWDE „Die von der Krankenkasse insgesamt an eine Kassenärztliche Vereinigung zu zahlende Gesamtvergütung ergibt sich aus
der Multiplikation des durchschnittlichen Behandlungsbedarfs eines Versicherten der
Kasse (in EBM-Punkten) mit der Zahl der Versicherten der Kasse (mit Wohnsitz im Bezirk der KV) und dem jeweils geltenden Punktwert.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH EULJHQ
6R]LDOOHLVWXQJVWUlJHU 8QIDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ 6R]LDOKLOIH RGHU GLH %XQGHVZHKU UHFKQHQ DXI
*UXQGODJH YRQ *HEKUHQRUGQXQJHQ DE 3ULYDWSDWLHQWHQ ZHUGHQ DXI *UXQGODJH GHU *H
EKUHQRUGQXQJ IU bU]WH *2b DEJHUHFKQHW 9JO 6LPRQ 6 II
0LWWOHUZHLOH LVW GDV 6\VWHP GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ VHKU NRPSOH[ XQG VFKZHU GXUFK
VFKDXEDU ZHLO GDV „[…] bisherige System aus Kassenärztlicher Vereinigung (KV) mit
Gesamtvertrag und Gesamtvergütung und dem gesetzlichen Auftrag an die KVn, eine
ausreichende ambulante ärztliche Versorgung sicher zu stellen (Sicherstellungsauftrag),
seit einigen Jahren schrittweise „demontiert“ wird.“ 6LPRQ 6 (LQ %HLVSLHO
GDIU VLQG GLH +DXVDU]WYHUWUlJH GLH PLWWOHUZHLOH QLFKW PHKU ZLH EOLFK ]ZLVFKHQ .UDQ
NHQNDVVH XQG .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHU 9HUHLQLJXQJ VRQGHUQ GLUHNW ]ZLVFKHQ GHQ .DVVHQ XQG
GHP $U]W JHVFKORVVHQ ZHUGHQ
'LH 5lXPH GHU 3UD[LV ZHUGHQ JHPHLQVDP JHQXW]W DEHU GLH $EUHFKQXQJ HUIROJW JHWUHQQW YRQHLQDQGHU
'LH SUDNWL]LHUHQGHQ bU]WH GHU 3UD[LV YHUVRUJHQ LKUH 3DWLHQWHQ JHPHLQVDP XQG UHFKQHQ ]XVDPPHQ
DE
36
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
$PEXODQWH 3ÀHJH
Ä$PEXODQWH 3ÀHJH ZLUG LQ 'HXWVFKODQG YRQ 6R]LDOVWDWLRQHQ XQG SULYDWHQ 3ÀHJHGLHQVWHQ HUEUDFKW GLH LP 6R]LDOUHFKW XQWHU GHP %HJULII GHU DPEXODQWHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ
zusammengefasst werden.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH /HLVWXQJHQ UHLFKHQ YRQ KDXVZLUW
VFKDIWOLFKHU 9HUVRUJXQJ EHU *UXQG XQG %HKDQGOXQJVSÀHJH ELV ]XU DPEXODQWHQ ,QWHQ
VLYSÀHJH 'HU 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ OLHJW EHL GHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ GLH 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH
$EELOGXQJ $PEXODQWH 3ÀHJH 6LPRQ 6 PLW 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ DEVFKOLH‰HQ (V JLEW NHLQH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ ZLH HV LQ GHU DPEX
ODQWHQ lU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU )DOO LVW -HGHU NDQQ XQWHU (LQKDOWXQJ GHU JHVHW]OLFKHQ
%HVWLPPXQJHQ †† XQG 6*% ;, HLQHQ DPEXODQWHQ 3ÀHJHGLHQVW HU|IIQHQ XQG
9HUVLFKHUWH YHUVRUJHQ GLH 1DFKIUDJH EHVWLPPW GDV $QJHERW 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ GLH
GLH %HGLQJXQJHQ GHU †† XQG 6*% ;, HUIOOHQ N|QQHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH PLW GHQ
3ÀHJHNDVVHQ DEVFKOLH‰HQ 0HKU DOV GHU 7UlJHU VLQG SULYDW RGHU IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJ
,P -DKU JDE HV 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 'LH 9HUJWXQJHQ ZHU
GHQ YRQ YHUVFKLHGHQHQ .RVWHQWUlJHUQ EHUQRPPHQ 'D]X ]lKOHQ GLH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
GLH *.9 DEHU DXFK SULYDWH XQG |IIHQWOLFKH +DXVKDOWH YJO 6LPRQ 6 I :HOFKHU .RVWHQWUlJHU IU ZHOFKH /HLVWXQJHQ DXINRPPHQ
PXVV UHJHOQ GDV 6*% 9 6*% ;, XQG 6*% ;,, 6R PXVV GLH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ] %
IU 3ÀHJHVDFKOHLVWXQJHQ DXINRPPHQ XQG GLH .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ IU GLH KlXVOLFKH
.UDQNHQSÀHJH GLHVH ZLUG GHU DPEXODQWHQ lU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ ]XJHRUGQHW XQG GLHQW
GHU 9HUPHLGXQJ YRQ .UDQNHQKDXVDXIHQWKDOWHQ 'LH SULYDWHQ +DXVKDOWH PVVHQ GDQQ GLH
YHUEOHLEHQGHQ .RVWHQ EHUQHKPHQ GLH QLFKW YRQ GHQ 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVWUlJHUQ DEJH
GHFNW ZHUGHQ 3ÀHJHVDFKOHLVWXQJHQ ZHUGHQ DXI *UXQGODJH YRQ 9HUJWXQJVYHUHLQEDUXQ
JHQ GLH ]ZLVFKHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVH XQG 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJ JHVFKORVVHQ ZHUGHQ YHUJWHW 'HU
37
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
3ÀHJHYHUWUDJ ]ZLVFKHQ (LQULFKWXQJ XQG 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHP OHJW IHVW ZHOFKH /HLVWXQJHQ
HUEUDFKW ZHUGHQ VROOHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 I
6WDWLRQlUH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ
'HU *UR‰WHLO GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ ZLUG LQ 'HXWVFKODQG GXUFK |IIHQWOLFKH .UDQNHQ
KlXVHU JHOHLVWHW 'RFK DXFK IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJH 7UlJHU XQG YRU DOOHP SULYDWH EHUQHKPHQ
LQ GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ YHUPHKUW HLQHQ 7HLO GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ 'LH ZLFKWLJVWHQ
0HUNPDOH GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ VLQG
/lQGHU KDEHQ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ
‡ .UDQNHQKDXVSODQXQJ XQWHUOLHJW VWDDWOLFKHU .RQWUROOH
‡ GXDOH )LQDQ]LHUXQJ %HWULHEVNRVWHQ YRQ 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJVWUlJHUQ EH]DKOW XQG ,Q
YHVWLWLRQVNRVWHQ GXUFK GDV /DQG
‡ 9HUVRUJXQJVDXIWUlJH XQG 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH PLW $XIQDKPH LQ GHQ .UDQNHQKDXV
SODQ ZLUG .UDQNHQKDXV ]XP 3ODQNUDQNHQKDXV XQG EHUQLPPW 9HUVRUJXQJVDXIWUDJ
GXUFK $XIQDKPH JLOW DXFK 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUDJ PLW .UDQNHQNDVVHQ
‡ NUDQNHQKDXVLQGLYLGXHOOH %XGJHW XQG 3ÀHJHVDW]YHUKDQGOXQJHQ ,QGLYLGXDOSULQ]LS
%XGJHW ZLUG ]ZLVFKHQ .UDQNHQKDXV XQG .UDQNHQNDVVH LQGLYLGXHOO YHUKDQGHOW
‡ 9HUVLFKHUWH N|QQHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU IUHL ZlKOHQ
‡ JHPHLQVDPH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ GXUFK GLH 9HUElQGH GHU .UDQNHQKDXVWUlJHU XQG
.UDQNHQNDVVHQ 9JO 6LPRQ II
'LH HQWVFKHLGHQGHQ 5HJHOXQJHQ VLQG VRZRKO LP 6*% 9 DOV DXFK LP .UDQNHQKDXV¿QDQ
]LHUXQJVJHVHW] ]X ¿QGHQ
$EELOGXQJ 6WDWLRQlUH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ 6LPRQ 6
38
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
,P -DKU H[LVWLHUWHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG .UDQNHQKlXVHU PLW LQVJHVDPW %HWWHQ 'DYRQ ZDUHQ LQ |IIHQWOLFKHU +DQG IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJ XQG SULYDW 9RU
VRUJH XQG 5HKDELOLWDWLRQVHLQULFKWXQJHQ JDE HV LP VHOEHQ -DKU PLW %HWWHQ
ZDUHQ |IIHQWOLFK IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJ XQG SULYDW 'LH .RVWHQ SUR %HKDQGOXQJV
IDOO ODJHQ EHL ¼ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW E 6 II 'LH
.UDQNHQKlXVHU LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ZHUGHQ QDFK LKUHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVVWXIHQ G K
‡
‡
‡
‡
*UXQGYHUVRUJXQJ &KLUXUJLH ,QQHUH 0HGL]LQ XQWHU %HWWHQ
5HJHOYHUVRUJXQJ KDEHQ QRFK ZHLWHUH )DFKJHELHWH *\QlNRORJLH +12 $XJHQ
KHLONXQGH RGHU 2UWKRSlGLH %HWWHQ
6FKZHUSXQNWYHUVRUJXQJ HUIOOHQ EHUUHJLRQDOH $XIJDEHQ ]XVlW]OLFK 3lGLDWULH
1HXURORJLH 0XQG .LHIHU XQG *HVLFKWVFKLUXUJLH XQG
0D[LPDOYHUVRUJXQJ 8QL.OLQLNHQ HLQJHWHLOW YJO 6LPRQ 6 II
3DWLHQWHQ N|QQHQ YROOVWDWLRQlU WHLOVWDWLRQlU XQG DPEXODQW EHKDQGHOW ZHUGHQ $XFK GLH
YRU XQG QDFKVWDWLRQlUH %HKDQGOXQJ ZLUG JHOHLVWHW 'DV *.90RGHUQLVLHUXQJVJHVHW]
HUP|JOLFKWH GLH DPEXODQWH 9HUVRUJXQJ YRQ 3DWLHQWHQ GXUFK .UDQNHQKlXVHU LQ 5H
JLRQHQ GLH GXUFK HLQH 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW VLQG 'LHV IKUWH DXFK GD]X GDVV
YLHOH .UDQNHQKlXVHU 0HGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ HU|IIQHWHQ XQG DOV 7UlJHU GLHVHU
IXQJLHUWHQ YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LHV LVW HLQ 6FKULWW ]XU LQWHJULHUWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GLH
HLQH .RRSHUDWLRQ ]ZLVFKHQ VWDWLRQlUHP XQG DPEXODQWHP %HUHLFK HUP|JOLFKHQ VROO XQG
GDPLW IU HLQH SDWLHQWHQRULHQWLHUWH 9HUVRUJXQJ VRUJW
'LH .UDQNHQKDXVSODQXQJ OLHJW LP 9HUDQWZRUWXQJVEHUHLFK GHV 6WDDWHV 'LH /lQGHU KDEHQ
GHQ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV VLH IU HLQH EHGDUIVJHUHFKWH 9HUVRUJXQJ
GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ VRUJHQ PVVHQ 'LHV JHVFKLHKW LP 5DKPHQ GHU .UDQNHQKDXVSODQXQJ †
.+* LQ GHU HLQ ,QYHVWLWLRQVSURJUDPP XQG GHU .UDQNHQKDXVSODQ HQWKDOWHQ VLQG 9JO
6LPRQ 6 ,P .UDQNHQKDXVSODQ VLQG .UDQNHQKlXVHU HLQHV /DQGHV XQG GHUHQ
%HWWHQ QDFK )DFKDEWHLOXQJHQ DXIJHOLVWHW :LUG HLQ .UDQNHQKDXV LQ GHQ .UDQNHQKDXVSODQ
DXIJHQRPPHQ EHUQLPPW HV GHQ 9HUVRUJXQJVDXIWUDJ XQG HUKlOW DOV *HJHQOHLVWXQJ HLQH
,QYHVWLWLRQVI|UGHUXQJ YRP /DQG 'HU $XIQDKPH IROJW GHU $EVFKOXVV GHV 9HUVRUJXQJVYHU
WUDJHV PLW GHQ .UDQNHQNDVVHQ (V H[LVWLHUHQ DXFK .UDQNHQKlXVHU GLH QLFKW 7HLO GHV .UDQ
NHQKDXVSODQHV VLQG VLH N|QQHQ PLW GHQ /DQGHVYHUElQGHQ GHU .UDQNHQNDVVHQ 9HUVRU
JXQJVYHUWUlJH DEVFKOLH‰HQ HUKDOWHQ GDQQ DEHU NHLQH ,QYHVWLWLRQVI|UGHUXQJ YJO 6LPRQ
6 II „Da das Land überfällige Investitionen nicht oder nicht ausreichend
fördert und der kommunale Träger aufgrund eigener Haushaltsprobleme die InvestitioQHQ QLFKW ¿QDQ]LHUHQ NDQQ HUVFKHLQW GHU 9HUNDXI DQ HLQH SULYDWH .UDQNHQKDXVNHWWH DOV
Lösung des Problems.“ 6LPRQ 6 .UDQNHQKlXVHU HUKDOWHQ 9HUJWXQJHQ IU
HUEUDFKWH /HLVWXQJHQ HQWZHGHU YRQ GHQ .RVWHQWUlJHUQ RGHU GLUHNW YRP 3DWLHQWHQ
(LQH EHVRQGHUH 1HXHUXQJ GLH GXUFK GDV *.9*HVXQGKHLWVUHIRUPJHVHW] HLQJH
IKUW ZXUGH LVW GLH 8PVWHOOXQJ GHU $EUHFKQXQJVPRGDOLWlWHQ DXI HLQ )DOOSDXVFKDOHQ6\V
WHP GDV '5*6\VWHP „DRGs – Diagnosis Related Groups – sind in erster Linie ein
3DWLHQWHQNODVVL¿NDWLRQVV\VWHP GXUFK GDV HLQH EHVWLPPWH *HVDPWKHLW YRQ 3DWLHQWHQ QDFK
überwiegend medizinischen Kriterien in Fallgruppen aufgeteilt wird.“ 6LPRQ 6
39
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
(V ZLUG XQWHUVFKLHGHQ QDFK +DXSW XQG 1HEHQGLDJQRVHQ VRZLH GDPLW YHUEXQGHQHQ
$XIZHQGXQJHQ *HOHJHQWOLFK ZHUGHQ DXFK GHU $XIQDKPHJUXQG GDV *HVFKOHFKW $OWHU
XQG GLH 9HUZHLOGDXHU EHUFNVLFKWLJW „Mit einer Fallpauschale werden im Regelfall alle
DOOJHPHLQHQ .UDQNHQKDXVOHLVWXQJHQ HLQHV GH¿QLHUWHQ %HKDQGOXQJVIDOOHV XQDEKlQJLJ YRQ
den tatsächlichen Kosten und der Verweildauer vergütet.“ 6LPRQ 6 :HO
FKHU '5* DXI ZHOFKHQ )DOO DQJHZHQGHW ZLUG HUJLEW VLFK DXV GHP )DOOSDXVFKDOHQNDWDORJ
1HEHQ GHQ )DOOSDXVFKDOHQ H[LVWLHUHQ QRFK HUJlQ]HQGH (QWJHOWH =XVDW]HQWJHOWH VRQVWLJH
(QWJHOWH (QWJHOWH IU WHLOVWDWLRQlUH XQG QDFKVWDWLRQlUH %HKDQGOXQJ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJV]X
VFKOlJH =X XQG $EVFKOlJH XQG $EWHLOXQJVSÀHJHVlW]H YJO 6LPRQ 6 I
„Die Zuordnung eine Patienten zu einer Fallgruppe wird nicht vom Krankenhauspersonal direkt vorgenommen, sondern nach Eingabe der Patientendaten durch speziell für die
Fallzuordnung entwickelte Gruppierungssoftware (so genannte „Grouper“) auf Grundlage festgelegter Regeln vollzogen.“ 6LPRQ 6 'HU '5* ZLUG HUVW QDFK HU
IROJWHU XQG DEJHVFKORVVHQHU %HKDQGOXQJ JHELOGHW (LQH ZLFKWLJH .HQQ]DKO IU GDV '5*
6\VWHP LVW GHU &DVH 0L[ „Als Case Mix (CM) wird die Summe der Bewertungsrelationen
aller behandelten Fälle einer Einrichtung bezeichnet.“ 6LPRQ 6 'HU &0
JLOW DOV $Q]HLJHU IU GLH /HLVWXQJVIlKLJNHLW HLQHV .UDQNKDXVHV 'HU &DVH0L[,QGH[ HLQH
ZHLWHUH .HQQ]DKO UHVXOWLHUW DXV 'LYLVLRQ GHV &DVH0L[ GXUFK GLH =DKO GHU EHKDQGHOWHQ
)lOOH +LHUDXV NDQQ GHU GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFKH .RVWHQDXIZDQG GHU )lOOH DEJHOHVHQ ZHUGHQ MH
K|KHU GHU &0, XPVR PHKU .RVWHQ YHUXUVDFKW HLQ )DOO YJO 6LPRQ 6 'LH $XVJDEHQ VWDWLRQlUHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU XQG 9RUVRUJH XQG 5HKD(LQ
ULFKWXQJHQ ODJHQ LP -DKU EHL ¼ ¼ ZXUGHQ YRQ GHU *.9 JH
WUDJHQ JHIROJW YRQ SULYDWHQ +DXVKDOWHQ ¼ XQG GHU 3.9 ¼ 'HU
5HVW ZLUG JHWUDJHQ YRQ |IIHQWOLFKHQ +DXVKDOWHQ $UEHLWJHEHUQ GHU 5HQWHQ XQG GHU 8Q
IDOOYHUVLFKHUXQJ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW 6 .UDQNHQKlXVHU VLQG HLQHU GHU JU|‰WHQ $UEHLWJHEHU LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ 0HKU DOV 0LO
OLRQ %HVFKlIWLJWH DUEHLWHQ KLHU XQG ZHLWHUH LQ GHQ 5HKD XQG 9RUVRUJHHLQULFKWXQ
JHQ
6WDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH
Ä$OV VWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ LP 6LQQH GHV 6R]LDOUHFKWV JHOWHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ
LQ GHQHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH YROOVWDWLRQlU JDQ]WlJLJ RGHU WHLOVWDWLRQlU WDJVEHU RGHU
QDFKWV VRZRKO XQWHUJHEUDFKW XQG YHUSÀHJW DOV DXFK JHSÀHJW ZHUGHQ $EV 6*%
XI).“ 6LPRQ 6 $XFK GLH .XU]]HLWSÀHJH G K HLQH YRUEHUJHKHQGH YROOVWD
WLRQlUH 3ÀHJH YRQ PD[ YLHU :RFKHQ LP -DKU ]lKOW GD]X
(LQ]XKDOWHQGH 9RUVFKULIWHQ ¿QGHQ VLFK YRU DOOHP LP 6*% ;, XQG 6*% ;,, GHP +HLP
JHVHW] GHU +HLPPLQGHVWEDXYHURUGQXQJ GHU +HLPSHUVRQDOYHURUGQXQJ XQG GHQ /DQGHV
SÀHJHJHVHW]HQ
40
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
0HUNPDOH GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH VLQG
‡ 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJVDXIWUDJ OLHJW EHL GHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ
‡ 1DFKIUDJH EHVWLPPW GDV $QJHERW HV JLEW NHLQH .DSD]LWlWVVWHXHUXQJ GXUFK GHQ 6WDDW
‡ NHLQH JHPHLQVDPH 6HOEVWYHUZDOWXQJ YJO 6LPRQ 6 9HUVRUJXQJVYHUWUlJH ZHUGHQ ]ZLVFKHQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ XQG 7UlJHUQ GHU 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQ
JHQ JHVFKORVVHQ $UW ,QKDOW XQG 8PIDQJ GHU 3ÀHJHOHLVWXQJ ZHUGHQ GDULQ IHVWJHKDOWHQ
(V GUIHQ QXU 9HUWUlJH PLW (LQULFKWXQJHQ JHVFKORVVHQ ZHUGHQ GLH GLH %HGLQJXQJHQ GHU
†† XQG 6*% ;, HUIOOHQ
6WDWLRQlUH XQG WHLOVWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH HUEUDFKWHQ FD (LQULFKWXQJHQ PLW 3OlW]HQ 'LHV VLQG FD 3OlW]H PHKU DOV QRFK LP -DKU YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU
GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 'LH JHVWLHJHQH $Q]DKO DQ 3ÀHJHSOlW]HQ VSLH
JHOW GHQ %HGDUI QlPOLFK GLH VWHLJHQGH $Q]DKO 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU ZLGHU (EHQIDOOV LP -DKU
ZDUHQ %HVFKlIWLJH LQ GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH WlWLJ 'DYRQ ZDUHQ ZHLEOLFK YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW 6 &LUFD GLH +lOIWH DOOHU
(LQULFKWXQJHQ ZHUGHQ YRQ IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJHQ 7UlJHUQ HWZD YRQ SULYDWHQ XQG GHU
5HVW YRQ |IIHQWOLFKHQ 7UlJHUQ JHIKUW YJO 6LPRQ 6 $EELOGXQJ 6WDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH 6LPRQ 6 'LH VWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH YHUXUVDFKWH ¼ .RVWHQ LP -DKU YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWH
ULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW 6 'LH VWHLJHQGHQ $XVJDEHQ GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH ]HL
JHQ GDVV HLQ JUR‰HV =LHO ZHOFKHV PLW (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ HUUHLFKW ZHUGHQ
VROOWH QlPOLFK GHU 9HUEOHLE 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU LQ LKUHU KlXVOLFKHQ 8PJHEXQJ QLFKW HU
UHLFKW ZXUGH YJO 6LPRQ 6 'DUEHU KLQDXV NDQQ JHIROJHUW ZHUGHQ GDVV YRU
DOOHP DXIJUXQG GHU =XQDKPH QHXURGHJHQHUDWLYHU (UNUDQNXQJHQ PHKU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH
VWDWLRQlU EHWUHXW ZHUGHQ PVVHQ
)DVW GLH +lOIWH DOOHU .RVWHQ ZXUGH LP -DKU YRQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
EHUQRPPHQ 3ULYDWH +DXVKDOWH ZDUHQ PLW EHWHLOLJW XQG |IIHQWOLFKH +DXVKDOWH PLW
41
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH SULYDWHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJHQ EHUQHKPHQ QXU HLQHQ JHULQJHQ 7HLO GHU .RVWHQ
'DEHL ZHUGHQ GLH .RVWHQ IU 8QWHUNXQIW XQG 9HUSÀHJXQJ ]XPHLVW YRQ GHQ %H
GUIWLJHQ EHUQRPPHQ HV VHL GHQQ VLH N|QQHQ HV VLFK QLFKW OHLVWHQ GDQQ HUVWDWWHW GHU 6R
]LDOKLOIHWUlJHU GLH .RVWHQ 'LH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ EHUQLPPW GLH .RVWHQ GHU HUEUDFKWHQ
/HLVWXQJHQ ELV ]XU +|KH GHU 3ÀHJHVWXIH 'LH 9HUJWXQJ ZLUG GLUHNW DQ GLH (LQULFKWXQJ
JH]DKOW P|JOLFKH 'LIIHUHQ]HQ PVVHQ ZLHGHUXP YRQ GHP 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ EHUQRP
PHQ ZHUGHQ 1RWZHQGLJH ,QYHVWLWLRQVNRVWHQ GHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ N|QQHQ JHI|UGHUW ZHUGHQ
QlKHUH 5HJHOXQJHQ ¿QGHQ VLFK LQ GHQ /DQGHVSÀHJHJHVHW]HQ 6LQG GLHVH )|UGHUXQJHQ
QLFKW DXVUHLFKHQG N|QQHQ 7HLOH GHU .RVWHQ DXI GLH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ XPJHOHJW ZHUGHQ
YJO 6LPRQ 6 II ,P -DKU PXVVWHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH FD ¼ EHL 3ÀH
JHVWXIH , DXV HLJHQHU 7DVFKH ]DKOHQ EHL 3ÀHJHVWXIH ,, ¼ XQG EHL 3ÀHJHVWXIH ,,, ¼
YJO 6LPRQ 6 3.5 Versorgungssituation in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
,Q 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ DUEHLWHWHQ LP -DKU bU]WH GDYRQ ZDUHQ DPEXODQW WlWLJ XQG VWDWLRQlU RGHU WHLOVWDWLRQlU ZDUHQ LQ ZHLWHUHQ (LQULFKWXQ
JHQ WlWLJ ] % LQ %HK|UGHQ XQG )RUVFKXQJVHLQULFKWXQJHQ 'LH 9HUWHLOXQJ DXI GLH *H
VFKOHFKWHU LVW UHODWLY DXVJHJOLFKHQ =XP 9HUJOHLFK LP -DKU ZDUHQ bU]WH LQ
0HFNOHQEXUJ 9RUSRPPHUQ ]XJHODVVHQ ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV KHXWH PHKU bU]WH DXI ZHQL
JHU (LQZRKQHU NRPPHQ YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHH
ELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
bU]WH VLQG LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ DOV 9HUWUDJVlU]WH EHL GHU .DVVHQlU]WOL
FKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ JHPHOGHW 'DYRQ VLQG +DXVlU]WH XQG
)DFKlU]WH 'LH +DXVlU]WH ODVVHQ VLFK ZLHGHUXP VSH]L¿]LHUHQ LQ $OOJHPHLQlU]
WH KDXVlU]WOLFK WlWLJH ,QWHUQLVWHQ XQG .LQGHUlU]WH 'DV +DXVDU]W)DFKDU]W 9HU
KlOWQLV OLHJW GHPQDFK EHL ]X YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW 6 'LH 7DEHOOH ]HLJW ZLH GHU 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG LQ GHQ HLQ]HOQHQ )DFKJHELHWHQ IU GLH 5HJL
RQHQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ LP $SULO DXVVDK
42
101,2
8HFNHU5DQGRZ
92,7
2VWYRUSRPPHUQ
7DEHOOH 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG LQ GHQ HLQ]HOQHQ )DFKJHELHWHQ KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHW
GHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
111,2
86,8
6FKZHULQ
:LVPDU 1RUGZHVWPHFN
lenburg
212,5
289,4
422,5
273,8
232,5
281,6
119,6
417,0
149,1
541,0
6WUDOVXQG 1RUGYRUSRPPHUQ 95,4
86,7
0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW]
217,2
141,9
6FKZHULQ:LVPDU 1RUG
ZHVWPHFNOHQEXUJ
100,0
Neubrandenburg
1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ0HFNOHQ
EXUJ6WUHOLW]
111,8
*UHLIVZDOG
*UHLIVZDOG2VWYRUSRPPHUQ
.UHLVUHJLRQHQ
89,6
102,3
3DUFKLP
5JHQ
90,3
91,3
/XGZLJVOXVW
102,9
*VWURZ
0ULW]
91,6
106,9
153,6
102,1
%DG 'REHUDQ
,QWHU
nisten
+DXV
lU]WH
9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG LQ
'HPPLQ
/DQGNUHLVH
5RVWRFN
5HJLRQ
182,1
194,1
166,4
235,7
109,4
117,1
164,9
163,2
144,7
279,4
132,2
94,9
172,2
.LQGHU
lU]WH
141,7
161,1
279,6
251,3
364,6
389,3
138,5
410,1
214,3
229,1
165,8
198,0
131,6
$Q
lVWKH
sisten
120,7
155,6
200,6
167,0
118,2
125,7
114,7
135,0
125,4
135,2
108,4
61,2
102,0
$XJHQ
lU]WH
356,1
285,8
395,8
237,1
290,9
357,7
147,1
217,9
185,9
423,0
117,5
208,4
187,5
&KLUXU
gen
132,7
183,9
148,0
150,1
158,3
141,2
132,3
131,2
128,2
153,6
143,2
112,9
119,1
155,6
181,1
182,0
236,7
102,2
222,6
125,6
171,9
88,4
208,5
139,2
215,7
128,0
)UDXHQ +12
lU]WH
bU]WH
120,1
277,9
201,3
263,1
236,0
176,7
119,7
177,1
136,6
161,5
149,8
143,1
118,0
+DXW
lU]WH
162,5
242,4
155,9
266,3
243,9
130,2
139,0
171,5
141,0
160,3
111,0
118,9
117,7
Ner
YHQ
lU]WH
120,2
142,7
124,6
186,8
161,9
129,5
123,5
137,0
117,9
129,9
147,5
113,3
114,6
2UWKR
SlGHQ
132,6
170,5
169,4
152,7
129,8
138,0
151,1
148,1
117,8
244,4
119,0
118,9
112,1
177,5
315,0
547,5
328,1
178,3
190,3
271,3
200,7
206,4
302,1
162,3
133,8
126,2
8UR
5DGLR
ORJHQ logen
143,7
165,2
202,0
218,6
168,2
216,7
200,1
167,8
166,6
169,8
182,1
159,1
114,6
Psy
FKR
WKHUD
peuten
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
43
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
Anzahl
'LH $EELOGXQJ YHUGHXWOLFKW GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ WlWL
JHQ bU]WH
7000
6500
6000
5500
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
unter 35
35 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 59
60 - 64
65 und
mehr
Insgesamt
2000 Anzahl
1187
988
1724
1358
708
59
6024
2005 Anzahl
991
1029
2109
1270
714
147
6260
2010 Anzahl
1189
682
2181
1832
426
303
6613
Altersgruppen
2000 Anzahl
2005 Anzahl
2010 Anzahl
$EELOGXQJ $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU bU]WH LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVP
LQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
(V ZLUG GHXWOLFK GDVV GHU *UR‰WHLO GHU SUDNWL]LHUHQGHQ bU]WH ]ZLVFKHQ XQG -DKUH
DOW LVW 'DUEHU KLQDXV LVW DE]XOHVHQ GDVV HLQH VWHLJHQGH $Q]DKO bU]WH DXFK EHU GDV
5HQWHQDOWHU KLQDXV DUEHLWHQ (LQ ZHVHQWOLFKHU *UXQG VLQG IHKOHQGH 1DFKIROJHU IU GLH
3UD[LVEHUQDKPH 'HXWVFKODQGZHLW ZXUGHQ LP -DKU „[…] Nachfolger für insgesamt
3.938 Praxen von Ärzten und Psychotherapeuten gesucht.“ KWWSZZZNEYGH
KWPO 0HKU ]XU 3UREOHPDWLN bU]WHPDQJHO IROJW LQ .DSLWHO 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ YHUIJW EHU LQVJHVDPW .UDQNHQKlXVHU PLW %HW
WHQ GDV HQWVSULFKW %HWWHQ SUR (LQZRKQHU 6HFKV GLHVHU .UDQNHQKlXVHU ZHU
GHQ |IIHQWOLFK JHWUDJHQ GUHL]HKQ IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJ XQG VLQG LQ SULYDWHU +DQG +LQ]X
NRPPHQ 5HKD XQG 9RUVRUJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ PLW %HWWHQ 'LH %HWWHQDXVODVWXQJ
OLHJW EHL XQG GLH GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFKH 9HUZHLOGDXHU EHWUlJW 7DJH YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH
bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 =XP 9HUJOHLFK LP -DKU H[LVWLHUWHQ
.UDQNHQKlXVHU LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ PLW %HWWHQ YJO KWWSVLVRQOLQH
VWDWLVWLNPYGHVDFKJHELHWH$/VWDQG.UDQNHQKDHXVHUBXQGB%HWWHQBQDFKB
.UDQNHQKDXVW\SHQ
,P -DKU JDE HV DPEXODQWH XQG VWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 0HFN
OHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 'LH YHUIJEDUHQ 3OlW]H LQQHUKDOE GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH EHWUXJHQ
LQVJHVDPW ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV DXI (LQZRKQHU EHU 3OlW]H NRP
44
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
PHQ ,P 9HUJOHLFK ]XP -DKU VWLHJ GLH $Q]DKO GHU DPEXODQWHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ
XP XQG GLH GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ XP YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGH
VPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV 'HU *UR‰WHLO GHU DPEXODQ
WHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ JHK|UW SULYDWHQ 7UlJHUQ JHIROJW YRQ IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJHQ
7UlJHUQ XQG |IIHQWOLFKHQ 7UlJHUQ 'LH VWDWLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ VLQG PHLVW
IUHLJHPHLQQW]LJ JHIROJW YRQ SULYDWHQ XQG |IIHQWOLFKHQ 7UlJHUQ YJO
KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV 'LH
YROOVWDWLRQlUH 'DXHUSÀHJH LVW PLW QDKH]X DXVJHODVWHW 9RU DOOHP 1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ
XQG GLH $OW.UHLVH 0ULW] XQG 'HPPLQ ZHLVHQ HLQHQ VHKU KRKHQ
$XVODVWXQJVJUDG DXI YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 +LHU NDQQ EHUHLWV DQWL]LSLHUW ZHUGHQ ZHOFKH $XVZLUNXQJHQ HLQH LPPHU lOWHU ZHUGHQGH
%HY|ONHUXQJ KDEHQ ZLUG +LHUDXI ZLUG JHQDXHU LQ 3XQNW HLQJHJDQJHQ
3.6 Gesundheitsausgaben
„Zu den Gesundheitsausgaben zählen insbesondere diejenigen Aufwendungen, die unmittelbar mit einer medizinischen Heilbehandlung, einer Präventions-, RehabilitationsRGHU 3ÀHJHPD‰QDKPH YHUEXQGHQHQ VLQG³ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW F 6 /DXW 6WDWLVWLVFKHP %XQGHVDPW YJO 3UHVVHPLWWHLOXQJ YRP ± EHWUXJHQ
GLH *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR LP -DKU ZDV (XUR SUR (LQ
ZRKQHU HQWVSULFKW XQG HLQH .RVWHQVWHLJHUXQJ ]XP 9RUMDKU YRQ EHGHXWHW 'D KlX¿J
YRQ HLQHU .RVWHQH[SORVLRQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ JHVSURFKHQ ZLUG XQG $XVJDEHQ DOV ]X
KRFK XQG EHUSURSRUWLRQDO DQJHVHKHQ ZHUGHQ HPS¿HKOW VLFK GLH %HWUDFKWXQJ GHU 5HOD
WLRQ ]XU :LUWVFKDIWVNUDIW 'LHVH %HWUDFKWXQJVZHLVH ]HLJW GDVV ]ZLVFKHQ XQG GLH *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ NRQVWDQW EOLHEHQ XQG FD GHV %UXWWRLQODQGSURGXNWHV %,3
HQWVSUDFKHQ 'LH $XVJDEHQ IU *HVXQGKHLW ZDUHQ GHPQDFK UHODWLY SURSRUWLRQDO ]XP %,3
YJO 6LPRQ 6 II „Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt (BIP) ist ein Maß für den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Output einer Volkswirtschaft. Es umfasst alle wirtschaftlichen Leistungen
von Inländern als auch Leistungen von Ausländern und die dafür an sie gezahlten Einkommen und Vergütungen.“ 6LPRQ 6 45
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
ϯϱϬ
DŝůůŝĂƌĚĞŶ ƵƌŽ
ϯϬϬ
ϮϱϬ
ϮϬϬ
ϭϴϬ
ϭϲϴ
ϭϵϰ
ϮϬϯ
ϮϬϰ
ϮϬϵ
Ϯϭϱ
Ϯϲϰ͕ϰ
Ϯϰϲ Ϯϱϰ͕Ϯ
Ϯϯϰ͕ϱ Ϯϯϰ͕ϯ ϮϰϬ͕ϰ
ϮϮϴ͕ϳ
Ϯϭϵ ϮϮϬ͕ϴ
Ϯϳϴ͕ϰ Ϯϴϳ͕ϯ
ϭϱϬ
ϭϬϬ
ϱϬ
Ϭ
ϭϵϵϯ ϭϵϵϰ ϭϵϵϱ ϭϵϵϲ ϭϵϵϳ ϭϵϵϴ ϭϵϵϵ ϮϬϬϬ ϮϬϬϭ ϮϬϬϮ ϮϬϬϯ ϮϬϬϰ ϮϬϬϱ ϮϬϬϲ ϮϬϬϳ ϮϬϬϴ ϮϬϬϵ ϮϬϭϬ
:ĂŚƌĞ
$EELOGXQJ *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ LP =HLWYHUODXI YJO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*H
VHOOVFKDIW6WDDW*HVXQGKHLWB*UD¿N1RPLQDOKWPO XQG 5REHUW.RFK,QVWLWXW E 6 HLJHQH 'DUVWHO
OXQJ
'HU $XVJDEHQDQVWLHJ 0LWWH GHU HU UHVXOWLHUW DXV GHU (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
GLH ]XU (QWODVWXQJ GHU *.9 IKUWH GHUHQ $XVJDEHQ UHODWLY NRQVWDQW EOHLEHQ
,P -DKU HQWVSUDFKHQ GLH $XVJDEHQ IU *HVXQGKHLW GHV %,3 'LH *.9 LVW GHU
JU|‰WH .RVWHQWUlJHU 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR E]Z GHU $XVJDEHQ HQWIDOOHQ DXI VLH
'LH $XVJDEHQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ VWLHJHQ LP 9HUJOHLFK ]X DQGHUHQ .RVWHQ
WUlJHUQ DP VWlUNVWHQ DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR RGHU 'LH SULYDWHQ +DXVKDOWH
GHUHQ .RVWHQDQVWLHJ DXI GHP ]ZHLWHQ 3ODW] OLHJW JDEHQ 0LOOLDUGHQ DXV ZDV GHU
$XVJDEHQ HQWVSULFKW 9JO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 3UHVVHPLWWHLOXQJ YRP ±
'LH XQWHQ VWHKHQGH $EELOGXQJ PDFKW GLH $XVJDEHQYHUWHLOXQJ GHXWOLFK
öffentl. Haushalte 13 829
38 965
13 829
gesetzl. Krankenversicherung 165 548
soziale Pflegeversicherung 21 535
11 975
gesetzl. Rentenversicherung 4 054
26 773
gesetzl. Unfallversicherung 4 613
4 613
4 054
21 535
165 548
private Krankenversicherung 26 773
Arbeitgeber 11 975
Private 38 965
$EELOGXQJ *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR QDFK 7UlJHUQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E 6
(LJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
46
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH $EELOGXQJHQ XQG JHEHQ ]XP HLQHQ GLH 9HUWHLOXQJ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ
DXI GLH (LQULFKWXQJHQ XQG ]XP DQGHUHQ GLH 8QWHUWHLOXQJ LQQHUKDOE GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HU
VRUJXQJ ZLHGHU
16 773
1 494
8 430
3 093
ambulante Einrichtungen
stationäre/teilstationäre
Einrichtungen
Rettungsdienste
141 404
Verwaltung
104 198
sonstige Einr. und private
Haushalte
Ausland
$EELOGXQJ $XVJDEHQ QDFK (LQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E 6 (LJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
1 825
Arztpraxen
10 038
Zahnarztpraxen
18 975
43 114
Praxen sonstiger medizin.
Berufe
Apotheken
40 862
17 727
8 863
Gesundheitshandwerk/einzelhandel
ambulante Pflege
$EELOGXQJ $XVJDEHQ DPEXODQWHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ LQ 0LOO (XUR YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E 6
(LJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
47
'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
DOVR 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR GHU *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ HQWIDOOHQ DXI DPEXODQWH (LQ
ULFKWXQJHQ VHLHQ HV *WHU RGHU 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ 'DYRQ YHUXUVDFKHQ $U]WSUD[HQ 0LOO (XUR XQG $SRWKHNHQ 0LOO (XUR GLH PHLVWHQ $XVJDEHQ 'LH DPEXODQWH 3ÀH
JH KDWWH 0LOOLDUGHQ PHKU $XVJDEHQ DOV LP -DKU ]XYRU ZDV DXV GHU =XQDKPH GHU
/HLVWXQJVHPSIlQJHU XQG GHU $QKHEXQJ GHU /HLVWXQJVEHLWUlJH UHVXOWLHUW 'LH $XVJDEHQ
GHV WHLOVWDWLRQlUHQ %HUHLFKV EHWUXJHQ 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR DOVR 9JO 6WDWLVWL
VFKHV %XQGHVDPW 3UHVVHPLWWHLOXQJ YRP ± „Zu den (teil-)stationäUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ JHK|UHQ GLH .UDQNHQKlXVHU DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR GLH
(LQULFKWXQJHQ GHU WHLOVWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR VRZLH GLH
9RUVRUJH XQG 5HKDELOLWDWLRQVHLQULFKWXQJHQ DXI GLH 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR ± HQW¿Hlen.“ 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 3UHVVHPLWWHLOXQJ YRP ± =XVDPPHQIDVVHQG ]XP 7KHPD *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ NDQQ JHVDJW ZHUGHQ „[…], dass
es weder in der früheren Bundesrepublik noch im vereinten Deutschland eine relativ zur
allgemeinen wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung überproportionale Entwicklung der Gesundheitsausgaben oder gar eine „Kostenexplosion“ gab.“ YJO 6LPRQ 6 48
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
bQGHUXQJ GHU )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXU ± :HOFKH 5ROOH VSLHOW GLH )DPLOLH IU bOWHUH"
,P =XJH GHU ,QGLYLGXDOLVLHUXQJ GHU $XÀ|VXQJ WUDGLWLRQHOOHU %H]JH ] % GHU 1RUPDO
ELRJUD¿H8 YHUlQGHUW VLFK DXFK GLH )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXU „Individualisierung, so gesehen, ist
eine gesellschaftliche Dynamik, die nicht auf einer freien Entscheidung der Individuen
beruht.“ %HFN%HFN*HUQVKHLP 6 'HU :DQGHO YRQ GHU *UR‰ ]XU .HUQID
PLOLH KDW VLFKHU YLHOH *UQGH X D GLH IHKOHQGH 1RWZHQGLJNHLW .LQGHU DOV 9HUVRUJHU GHU
(OWHUQJHQHUDWLRQ RGHU $XIUHFKWHUKDOWXQJ GHV )DPLOLHQEHWULHEHV ]X EHNRPPHQ XQG ]XP
DQGHUHQ GLH ZHLEOLFKH (PDQ]LSDWLRQ XQG GDV (UP|JOLFKHQ GHU )DPLOLHQSODQXQJ 'HU )R
NXV DXI JHPHLQVDPH =LHOH XQG JHJHQVHLWLJH $EKlQJLJNHLW SUlJWHQ GDV %LOG GHU YRULQGXV
WULHOOHQ )DPLOLH RGHU ZLH %HFN*HUQVKHLP 6 VDJW GLH GXUFK HLQHQ Ä=ZDQJ
]XU 6ROLGDULWlW³ ]XVDPPHQKDOWHQGH Ä1RWJHPHLQVFKDIW³ 'HU QHXH =ZDQJ ]XU 6ROLGDULWlW
VSLHJHOW VLFK QXQ LQ GHU $EKlQJLJNHLW GHU )UDX YRP Ä%URWYHUGLHQHU³ ZLGHU XQG LQ GHU GHV
0DQQHV YRQ GHU GHQ +DXVKDOW IKUHQGHQ )UDX 'LH (LQIKUXQJ GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJV
V\VWHPH EUDFKWH HLQH QHXH )RUP GHU 8QDEKlQJLJNHLW YRQ ELVKHULJHQ IDPLOLlUHQ 8QWHU
VWW]XQJVOHLVWXQJHQ 'LH LPPHU ZHLWHU IRUWVFKUHLWHQGH (PDQ]LSDWLRQ XQG 7HLOKDEH YRQ
)UDXHQ DQ ZHLWHUIKUHQGHQ %LOGXQJVZHJHQ HU|IIQHWH GLH 0|JOLFKNHLW GHU 6HOEVWVWlQGLJ
NHLW XQG 6HOEVWYHUVRUJXQJ 9JO %HFN*HUQVKHLP 6 „Das heißt, auch in der
weiblichen Normalbiographie setzt allmählich die Logik individueller Lebensentwürfe
sich durch, der Zwang zur Solidarität wird weiter gebrochen.“ %HFN*HUQVKHLP 6 'DPLW HLQKHU JHKW HLQ 9HUOXVW ELVKHU JHNDQQWHU 6LFKHUKHLWHQ XQG GLH 1RUPDOELR
JUD¿H ZLUG ]XU Ä%DVWHOELRJUD¿H³ ZDV EHGHXWHW GDVV GHU ÄQRUPDOH³ $EODXI .LQGKHLW ĺ
6FKXO]HLW ĺ $XVELOGXQJ6WXGLXP ĺ $UEHLW LP $XVELOGXQJV E]Z 6WXGLHQEHUXI ELV ]XU
3HQVLRQLHUXQJ NDXP QRFK YRUNRPPW =DKOUHLFKH 2SWLRQHQ $XVELOGXQJ RGHU 6WXGLXP"
$XVODQG" +HLUDW" .LQGHU" WXQ VLFK DXI GLH HLQHU (QWVFKHLGXQJ EHGUIHQ XQG PLW 5LVLNHQ
YHUEXQGHQ VLQG 'HU 0HQVFK VXFKW DXV GHQ ]DKOUHLFKHQ 2SWLRQHQ GLH DXV GLH LKP IU
VHLQHQ PRPHQWDQHQ /HEHQVZHJ DP SDVVHQGVWHQ HUVFKHLQHQ 6FKHLWHUQ LVW GDEHL MHGHU]HLW
P|JOLFK YJO %HFN%HFN*HUQVKHLP 6 II
=X GHQ VLFK lQGHUQGHQ )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ JHK|UHQ DXFK ]XQHKPHQGH 6FKHLGXQJV]DKOHQ
XQG GHU %HGHXWXQJVYHUOXVW GHU (KH DOV ,QVWLWXWLRQ 'LHVH JDOW LP XQG -DKUKXQ
GHUW DOV HLQH 6HOEVWYHUVWlQGOLFKNHLW DOOHLQ DXIJUXQG GHU PDWHULHOOHQ ([LVWHQ]EDVLV GLH VLH
OLHIHUW 1LFKW GDV *OFN GHV HLQ]HOQHQ VWDQG LP 0LWWHOSXQNW VRQGHUQ GLH 6LFKHUXQJ GHU
(UEIROJH XQG PDWHULHOOH $EVLFKHUXQJ GHU )UDX 'LHV lQGHUWH VLFK EHUHLWV LQ =HLWHQ GHU ,Q
GXVWULDOLVLHUXQJ DOV )UDXHQ XQG 0lQQHU XQDEKlQJLJ YRQHLQDQGHU HLQH $UEHLW DXIQHKPHQ
XQG VLFK VHOEVW YHUVRUJHQ NRQQWHQ ¿QDQ]LHOOH 8QDEKlQJLJNHLW XQG )UHLKHLW GHU /HEHQV
JHVWDOWXQJ ZDUHQ GLH )ROJH ,P /DXIH GHU -DKUH ZXUGH GLH (KH LPPHU PHKU $XVGUXFN
SHUV|QOLFKHU :QVFKH XQG DOV .U|QXQJ GHU /LHEH EHWUDFKWHW YJO %HFN%HFN*HUQVKHLP
6 II 'DVV GLH QHXHQ )UHLKHLWHQ XQG GLH YHUORUHQH 6HOEVWYHUVWlQGOLFKNHLW GHU
(KH DXFK KRKH $QIRUGHUXQJHQ DQ 3DDUH VWHOOHQ ]HLJHQ GLH VWHLJHQGHQ 6FKHLGXQJV]DK
OHQ ,P -DKU OLH‰HQ VLFK LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 3DDUH VFKHLGHQ GLHV VLQG 6R]LRORJLVFKHU %HJULII PLW GHP W\SLVFKH 0XVWHU GHU /HEHQVIKUXQJ EHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ
49
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
6FKHLGXQJHQ PHKU DOV -DKUH ]XYRU 2IWPDOV VHKHQ 3DDUH DEHU DXFK NHLQH 1RWZHQGLJ
NHLW PHKU ]X KHLUDWHQ 'HU 9HUJOHLFK GHU (KHVFKOLH‰XQJHQ GHU -DKUH XQG YHU
GHXWOLFKW GHQ %HGHXWXQJVYHUOXVW GHU (KH +HLUDWHWHQ QRFK 3DDUH ZDUHQ HV
ÄQXU³ QRFK 3DDUH 'LH $XÀ|VXQJ GHU Ä1RUPIDPLOLH³ I|UGHUW QHXH /HEHQV
IRUPHQ ]XWDJH 6LQJOH+DXVKDOWH 3DWFKZRUN)DPLOLHQ :RKQJHPHLQVFKDIWHQ /HEHQVJH
PHLQVFKDIWHQ $OOHLQHU]LHKHQGH 0DQ VSULFKW YRQ HLQHU 3OXUDOLVLHUXQJ GHU /HEHQVIRUPHQ
YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 $XFK bOWHUH OHEHQ ]XQHKPHQG DOOHLQ HLQ VHLW
GHQ HU -DKUHQ DQVWHLJHQGHV 5HVXOWDW DXV 9HUZLWZXQJ QLH JHVFKORVVHQHQ (KHQ QLH
JHJUQGHWHQ )DPLOLHQ XQG GDPLW GHP QLFKW PHKU H[LVWLHUHQGHQ )DPLOLHQYHUEDQG 'LHVH
(LQVDPNHLW LP $OWHU ZLUG PLW GHP %HJULII GHU Ä6LQJXODULVLHUXQJ³ GHV $OWHUV EHVFKULH
EHQ „Insgesamt nimmt mit steigendem Lebensalter der Anteil Alleinstehender und die
Anzahl von Einpersonenhaushalten zu.“ %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 I ,P -DKU ZDUHQ 0HQVFKHQ EHU DOOHLQVWHKHQG -H lOWHU PDQ ZLUG XPVR K|KHU LVW GLH
:DKUVFKHLQOLFKNHLW DOOHLQ ]X OHEHQ 6R EHWUlJW GLH $Q]DKO GHU $OOHLQVWHKHQGHQ EHL GHQ
EHU -lKULJHQ ZRUXQWHU PHKU DOV )UDXHQ VLQG 'LHVH (QWZLFNOXQJ
YHUXUVDFKW GXUFK GLH K|KHUH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ GHU )UDXHQ ZLUG DOV Ä)HPLQLVLHUXQJ³ GHV
$OWHUV EH]HLFKQHW YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 „Ein knappes Drittel der über
60-Jährigen lebt allein im Haushalt, knapp drei Viertel davon nach Verwitwung. 56 %
der Älteren leben in einem Zweipersonenhaushalt, wobei es sich in neun von zehn Fällen
bei der zweiten Person um den Ehepartner handelt“ YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6
=XQHKPHQGH 6FKHLGXQJV]DKOHQ ZHQLJHU (KHVFKOLH‰XQJHQ ZHQLJHU .LQGHU XQG JU|‰HUH
0RELOLWlW ODVVHQ GLH )UDJH DXINRPPHQ ZHU EHL $XIWUHWHQ HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW LP
$OWHU GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ EHL $OOHLQVWHKHQGHQ EHUQLPPW 'LH KRKH %LOGXQJV XQG (UZHUEV
EHWHLOLJXQJ GHU )UDXHQ VRUJW GDIU GDVV GLHVH ZHJHQ LKUHU EHUXÀLFKHQ 7lWLJNHLW GLH 3ÀHJH
HLQHV $QJHK|ULJHQ QLFKW RKQH :HLWHUHV EHUQHKPHQ N|QQHQ +lX¿J VLQG GLH 2SSRUWX
QLWlWVNRVWHQ9 EHL $XVIKUHQ GHU 3ÀHJH VHKU JUR‰ GHQQ PDQ YHU]LFKWHW DXI GLH EHUXÀLFKH
9HUZLUNOLFKXQJ XQG KDW ZHQLJHU =HLW IU VLFK GHQ 3DUWQHU XQG GLH .LQGHU YJO 5|WWJHU
/LHSPDQQ 6 $XFK ZHQQ PHKU 3HUVRQHQ DOOHLQH OHEHQ EHVLW]HQ VLH ]X LKUHQ 9HUZDQGWHQ VHKU JXWH
%H]LHKXQJHQ „Mit Rückgang der Geburtenraten hat die Zahl der Seitenverwandtschaften abgenommen, die vertikale Beziehung zwischen den Generationen an Bedeutung gewonnen.“ 5|WWJHU/LHSPDQQ 6 'LH VWHLJHQGH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ HUP|JOLFKW
GDVV *UR‰HOWHUQ XQG (QNHO YLHOH JHPHLQVDPH /HEHQVMDKUH WHLOHQ 'LH :HUWVFKlW]XQJ GHU
)DPLOLH LVW VHKU KRFK XQG DXFK GLH 9HUKlOWQLVVH XQWHUHLQDQGHU ZHUGHQ DOV ÄHQJ³ RGHU
ÄVHKU HQJ³ EH]HLFKQHW )DPLOLHQ HUP|JOLFKHQ VR]LDOH ,QWHJUDWLRQ XQG .RPPXQLNDWLRQ
XQG ELHWHQ *HERUJHQKHLW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 XQG %DFNHV
&OHPHQV 6 7URW] GHU ]XQHKPHQGHQ UlXPOLFKHQ (QWIHUQXQJ ]ZLVFKHQ (OWHUQ
XQG .LQGHUQ GLH PHLVW GXUFK )RUW]XJ DXIJUXQG HLQHU $UEHLWVDXIQDKPH HQWVWHKW KDEHQ
PHKU DOV GHU ELV XQWHU -lKULJHQ UHJHOPl‰LJHQ PLQG [ GLH :RFKH .RQWDNW
]X LKUHQ .LQGHUQ $XFK 1DFKEDUVFKDIWVYHUKlOWQLVVH XQG )UHXQGVFKDIWHQ HUKDOWHQ LP $OWHU
.RVWHQ GLH HQWVWHKHQ ZHQQ YRUKDQGHQH 0|JOLFKNHLWHQ QLFKW JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ PDQ DOVR ]XJXQVWHQ HLQHU
$OWHUQDWLYH DXI GLH DQGHUH YHU]LFKWHW
50
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
HLQH QHXH 4XDOLWlW XQG EHHLQÀXVVHQ GLH =XIULHGHQKHLW HQRUP )DPLOLHQDQJHK|ULJH EHU
QHKPHQ LP 3ÀHJHIDOO DXFK DOV HUVWH GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHV 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ 9RQ GHQ LQVJH
VDPW 0LOOLRQHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ZHUGHQ 0LOOLRQHQ ]X +DXVH
YHUVRUJW GDV VLQG 0HKU DOV HLQH 0LOOLRQ YRQ LKQHQ ZLUG DXVVFKOLH‰OLFK GXUFK
$QJHK|ULJH YHUVRUJW GLH UHVWOLFKHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ HUKDOWHQ ]XVlW]OLFKH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ
GXUFK DPEXODQWH 3ÀHJHGLHQVWH YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 Ä,Q GHU )DPLOLH ZLUG GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ YRQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ GHU]HLW ]X ]ZHL 'ULWWHOQ YRQ
Frauen, d. h. von Ehepartnerinnen, Müttern, Töchtern oder Schwiegertöchtern, übernommen, von denen wiederum die Mehrzahl nicht erwerbstätig ist.“ YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQ
GHVWDJ 6 'LH +DXSWSÀHJHSHUVRQHQ ZDUHQ LP -DKU LQ GHU )lOOH GLH
(KH3DUWQHULQ XQG LQ GHU )lOOH GHU (KH3DUWQHU 'LH $XIJDEH GHU +DXSWSÀHJHSHU
VRQHQ EHUQHKPHQ GHV :HLWHUHQ GHU 7|FKWHU GHU 6|KQH XQG GHU 6FKZLH
JHUW|FKWHU 'LH *HVFKOHFKWHUYHUWHLOXQJ EHL GHU 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ LVW JDQ]
NODU GHQQ GHU 3ÀHJHIlOOH ZHUGHQ YRQ )UDXHQ YHUVRUJW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU
*HVXQGKHLW D 6 Ä'LH 0HKUKHLW GHU +DXSWSÀHJHSHUVRQHQ LVW -DKUH RGHU lOter.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW D 6 )HVW]XKDOWHQ EOHLEW GDVV NOHLQHUH
)DPLOLHQ PLW ZHQLJHU RGHU JDU NHLQHQ .LQGHUQ 6LQJXODULVLHUXQJ HLQH KRKH )UDXHQHU
ZHUEVTXRWH VWHLJHQGH EHUXIVEHGLQJWH 0RELOLWlW ELVKHULJH 3ÀHJHDUUDQJHPHQWV LQ )UDJH
VWHOOHQ 2E GDUDXV HLQ 3ÀHJHQRWVWDQG UHVXOWLHUW VROO DQVFKOLH‰HQG EHDQWZRUWHW ZHUGHQ
'URKHQGHU 3ÀHJHQRWVWDQG"
'LH YRUKHULJHQ $XVIKUXQJHQ KDEHQ YHUGHXWOLFKW GDVV GLH Ä1RUPIDPLOLH³ NDXP QRFK
H[LVWLHUW 'LH (UP|JOLFKXQJ GHU VFKXOLVFKHQ XQG EHUXÀLFKHQ 4XDOL¿NDWLRQ YRQ )UDX
HQ IKUW ]X HLQHU KRKHQ )UDXHQHUZHUEVTXRWH XQG GDPLW ]X PHKU 6HOEVWVWlQGLJNHLW XQG
8QDEKlQJLJNHLW )UDXHQ VHKHQ VLFK QLFKW PHKU QXU DOV +DXVIUDXHQ XQG 0WWHU VRQGHUQ
ZROOHQ ]XQHKPHQG EHUXÀLFKH (UIOOXQJ HUODQJHQ YJO 5|WWJHU/LHSPDQQ 6 'DKHU VWHOOW GLH KlXVOLFKH 3ÀHJH HLQHQ HQRUPHQ (LQVFKQLWW GDU GHQQ YRQ GHQ SÀHJHQGHQ
$QJHK|ULJHQ GLH EHLP (LQWUHWHQ GHV 3ÀHJHIDOOV HUZHUEVWlWLJ ZDUHQ PXVVWHQ LKUH
$UEHLWVVWXQGHQ UHGX]LHUHQ XQG GLH $UEHLW NRPSOHWW DXIJHEHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWH
ULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW D 6 +LQ]X NRPPW GDVV JHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKH %HWHLOLJXQJ LQ
GHU 5HJHO (UZHUEVIlKLJNHLW YRUDXVVHW]W GLH ZLHGHUXP DQ %LOGXQJVEHWHLOLJXQJ JHEXQ
GHQ LVW 0RELOLWlW XQG )OH[LELOLWlW VLQG QRWZHQGLJ XQG 6WHOOHQ KHXW]XWDJH PHLVW EHIULVWHW
ZDV GDV ODQJIULVWLJH 1LHGHUODVVHQ DQ HLQHP 2UW XQG HLQH )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ HUVFKZHUW
'DUDXV UHVXOWLHUW QLFKW VHOWHQ GDVV )UDXHQ GLH )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ DXIVFKLHEHQ RGHU JDU
NHLQH .LQGHU EHNRPPHQ XQG LKUH +HLPDW DXIJUXQG EHVVHUHU %HUXIVDXVVLFKWHQ LQ DQGH
UHQ %XQGHVOlQGHUQ YHUODVVHQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ OHLGHW EHUHLWV KHXWH XQWHU HL
QHP )UDXHQPDQJHO LQ GHU $OWHUVNODVVH GHU ELV -lKULJHQ 'HXWVFKODQGZHLW OLHJW GHU
'XUFKVFKQLWW EHL )UDXHQ SUR 0lQQHU LQ GHU $OWHUVNODVVH ELV LQ 0HFNOHQ
EXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VLQG HV )UDXHQ DXI 0lQQHU :HQLJHU )UDXHQ EHGHXWHW ]ZDQJV
OlX¿J DXFK ZHQLJHU .LQGHU XQG LP =XVDPPHQKDQJ PLW GHU IDPLOLlUHQ XQG SURIHVVLRQHO
51
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
OHQ 3ÀHJH ZHQLJHU SRWHQ]LHOOH 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ 'HQQ )UDXHQ HUEULQJHQ GHQ *UR‰WHLO GHU
KlXVOLFKHQ 3ÀHJH XQG DXFK LKUH %HWHLOLJXQJ DQ GHU SURIHVVLRQHOOHQ 3ÀHJH OLHJW LQ
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ EHL YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQB
EHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV (LQHUVHLWV IROJW GDUDXV GDVV SURIHVVLRQHOOH 3ÀHJH
HLQULFKWXQJHQPHKU3HUVRQHQYHUVRUJHQPVVHQDOVELVKHUXQGDQGHUHUVHLWVZHUGHQGLHDX‰HU
IDPLOLlUHQ %H]LHKXQJHQ bOWHUHU YRU QHXH +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ JHVWHOOW GD QXQ DXFK YHU
PHKUW )UHXQGH DOV 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ LQ )UDJH NRPPHQ %HUHLWV GHU +DXSWSÀHJHSHUVR
QHQ VLQG KHXW]XWDJH 1DFKEDUQ RGHU %HNDQQWH YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW
D 6 'RFK ZHUGHQ GLH 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ GLH VWHLJHQGH 1DFKIUDJH EHZlOWLJHQ
N|QQHQ" %HUHLWV KHXWH VLQG LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ GHU YROOVWDWLRQlUHQ 'DX
HUSÀHJH DXVJHODVWHW ,P /DQGNUHLV 0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] OLHJW GLH $XVODVWXQJ EHL 'LH 3ÀHJHTXRWH10 LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ LVW PLW GLH K|FKVWH EXQGHVZHLW YJO
6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 $XI 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH
LQ XQVHUHP %XQGHVODQG NRPPHQ 3ÀHJHIDFKNUlIWH ZDV YHUGHXWOLFKW ZLH VHKU GLH
SURIHVVLRQHOOH 3ÀHJH DXI GLH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ YRQ SÀHJHQGHQ 9HUZDQGWHQ DQJHZLHVHQ LVW
YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 ,P -DKU ZDUHQ 0LOOLRQHQ 3HUVRQHQ SÀHJHEHGUIWLJ =HKQ -DKUH ]XYRU ZDUHQ HV
QRFK 0LOOLRQHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 XQG
6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 1DFK 9RUDXVEHUHFKQXQJHQ
GHV 6WDWLVWLVFKHQ %XQGHVDPWHV 6 ZLUG GLH =DKO GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ LP -DKU
EHL 0LOOLRQHQ OLHJHQ ,KU $QWHLO DQ GHU *HVDPWEHY|ONHUXQJ ZLUG DXI VWHLJHQ =XP 9HUJOHLFK LP -DKU ZDUHQ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ SÀHJHEHGUIWLJ ,Q
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ ZLUG GLH =DKO GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ DXI VWHLJHQ YJO
6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 XQG 6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV
%XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 6 II 'D NQIWLJ PLW HLQHU =XQDKPH GHU 6FKZHUSÀH
JHEHGUIWLJNHLW DXFK DXIJUXQG QHXURGHJHQHUDWLYHU (UNUDQNXQJHQ ± EHUHLWV KHXWH OHLGHQ
]ZLVFKHQ XQG 0LOOLRQHQ 0HQVFKHQ DQ 'HPHQ] LQ 'HXWVFKODQG JHUHFKQHW ZLUG
GLH KlX¿J LQ VWDWLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ EHKDQGHOW ZHUGHQ HUJLEW VLFK GDUDXV DNXWHU +DQG
OXQJVEHGDUI YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 $IHQWDNLV0DLHU 6 JHKHQ GDYRQ DXV GDVV ELV ]XP -DKU LQ GHQ 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ .UDQNHQKlXVHU
DPEXODQWH XQG WHLOVWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJHQ GHXWVFKODQGZHLW GHU %HGDUI DQ 9ROO
]HLWNUlIWHQ XP VWHLJHQ ZLUG %HWUDFKWHW PDQ DOOHLQ GLH DPEXODQWHQ XQG WHLO VWD
WLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ VWHLJW GHU 3HUVRQDOEHGDUI VRJDU XP %HUHLWV KHXWH PVVHQ
DXVJHELOGHWH 3ÀHJHIDFKNUlIWH GXUFK XPJHOHUQWH XQWHUVWW]W ZHUGHQ XP GHQ 3ÀHJHEHGDUI
]X GHFNHQ 'LHV LVW DXFK GHVKDOE HUIRUGHUOLFK ZHLO HLQ *UR‰WHLO GHU %HVFKlIWLJXQJHQ LQ
7HLO]HLW DEVROYLHUW ZLUG 1XU YRQ 3ÀHJHIDFKNUlIWHQ ZDUHQ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ 9ROO]HLW EHVFKlIWLJW DUEHLWHWHQ 7HLO]HLW 'HU 5HVW YHUWHLOW VLFK
DXI ]HLWZHLOLJ RGHU JHULQJIJLJ %HVFKlIWLJWH YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWR
UHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
'LH QDKH]X YROOVWlQGLJH $XVODVWXQJ GHU VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJHSOlW]H LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RU
SRPPHUQ XQG GLH LQ .DSLWHO EHVFKULHEHQH %HY|ONHUXQJVHQWZLFNOXQJ GLH PLW HLQHU
YHUPHKUWHQ $EZDQGHUXQJ MXQJHU )UDXHQ HLQKHUJHKW YHUGHXWOLFKHQ GHQ DNXWHQ +DQG
$QWHLO GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ DQ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ LQVJHVDPW
52
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
OXQJVEHGDUI :HOFKH (PSIHKOXQJHQ HV IU GHQ 3ÀHJHEHUHLFK JLEW ZLUG LQ .DSLWHO WKHPDWLVLHUW
'URKHQGHU bU]WHPDQJHO"
8QWHU GHP 6FKODJZRUW bU]WHPDQJHO ZLUG VHLW FD ]HKQ -DKUHQ LPPHU ZLHGHU GDUDXI KLQ
JHZLHVHQ ZLH VFKOHFKW HV XP GLH 9HUVRUJXQJVVLWXDWLRQ GHU 'HXWVFKHQ VWHKW $XVJHO|VW
ZXUGH GLH 'HEDWWH GXUFK HLQH 6WXGLH GHU .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ %XQGHVYHUHLQLJXQJ LP -DKU
'LH 0HGLHQ WDWHQ LKU EULJHV XP DXI GLH ÄPLVHUDEOH lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ³ KLQ]X
ZHLVHQ 'RFK WUHIIHQ GLHVH $XVVDJHQ ]X XQG OHLGHW 'HXWVFKODQG WDWVlFKOLFK XQWHU HLQHP
bU]WHPDQJHO"
„Im Jahre 2010 ist die Gesamtzahl der bei den Landesärztekammern gemeldeten ÄrzWLQQHQ XQG bU]WH DXI JHVWLHJHQ³ KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJH
DVS"KLV 'DYRQ ZDUHQ EHUXIVWlWLJ XQG ]ZDU DPEXODQW
VWDWLRQlU LQ %HK|UGHQ RGHU .|USHUVFKDIWHQ XQG LQ DQGHUHQ %H
UHLFKHQ 'LH $EELOGXQJ PDFKW GHQ $QVWLHJ GHU $U]W]DKOHQ ]ZLVFKHQ XQG GHXWOLFK $QJH]HLJW ZHUGHQ GLH EHUXIVWlWLJHQ bU]WH
340000
333600
330000
320000
310000
300000
290000
280000
270000
279400
325900
319700
314900
311300
301000
307600
297900
306400
294700
304100
291200
287000
282700
260000
250000
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Anzahl der Ärzte
$EELOGXQJ (QWZLFNOXQJ GHU $U]W]DKOHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG YRQ ELV YJO KWWSZZZ
EXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV XQG KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJH
DVS"KLV HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
53
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
'D GLH %HY|ONHUXQJV]DKO DEQLPPW XQG GLH $U]W]DKOHQ VWHLJHQ HUJLEW VLFK LP /DXIH GHU
-DKUH HLQH ]XQHKPHQGH $U]WGLFKWH G K GLH $Q]DKO GHU bU]WH SUR (LQZRKQHU QLPPW ]X
/DJ GLH $U]WGLFKWH LP -DKU QRFK EHL VWLHJ VLH LP -DKU DXI bU]WH SUR
(LQZRKQHU ,Q 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VWLHJ GLH $U]WGLFKWH YRQ DXI YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 %H]RJHQ DXI GLH YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ VWLHJ GLH
$Q]DKO GHU bU]WH ]ZLVFKHQ XQG YRQ DXI 'LH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ † 6*% 9 VWHOOW LQ 'HXWVFKODQG HLQ ZLFKWLJHV 0LWWHO ]XU 3ODQXQJ
GHU YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GDU „Grundlage der Bedarfsplanung in Deutschland
ist das Verhältnis der Zahl der Vertragsärzte bezogen auf die Zahl der Einwohner in einem bestimmten Planungsbereich.“ .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 I 'HXWVFKODQG LVW LQ 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH HLQJHWHLOW YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 „Je nach Raumordungstyp
und Arztgruppe existiert eine Verhältniszahl Einwohner je Arzt […], aus der sich ein
bestimmtes Soll an Ärzten für einen Planungsbereich ergibt.“ .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6
'HU 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG EHWUlJW ZHQQ ,VW XQG 6ROO=DKO EHUHLQVWLPPHQ 8QWHU
YHUVRUJXQJ HQWVWHKW ZHQQ GHU +DXVDU]WVWHOOHQ E]Z GHU )DFKDU]WVWHOOHQ QLFKW
EHVHW]W VLQG hEHUYHUVRUJXQJ OLHJW YRU ZHQQ IU HLQHQ 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFK GHU 6WHOOHQ
EHVHW]W VLQG .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 'LH 9HUVRUJXQJ PLW +DXVlU]WHQ EHWUlJW LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ YJO .ORVH
5HKEHLQ 6 (LQ ÀFKWLJHU %OLFN DXI GLHVH 'DWHQ NDQQ GHQ KlX¿J SURNODPLHUWHQ
bU]WHPDQJHO QLFKW EHVWlWLJHQ $EHU KLHU VROOWH JHQDXHU DXI GLH HLQ]HOQHQ 3ODQXQJVEHUHL
FKH JHVFKDXW ZHUGHQ XP HLQ H[DNWHUHV %LOG ]X HUKDOWHQ %HWUDFKWHW PDQ GLHV IU GLH KDXV
lU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ OLHJHQ GHU 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH EHL
HLQHP 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG ]ZLVFKHQ XQG /DXW 'H¿QLWLRQ NDQQ KLHU QRFK QLFKW YRQ
HLQHU 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ JHVSURFKHQ ZHUGHQ DEHU HV EHVWHKHQ RIIHQH 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH
'LH %HGDUIVSODQXQJV5LFKWOLQLHbU]WH11 VFKUHLEW HLQH (LQZRKQHU$U]WUHODWLRQ LQ OlQGOL
FKHQ 5lXPHQ YRQ (LQZRKQHU SUR +DXVDU]W YRU /DXW GHP 5HJLRQDOHQ 3ODQXQJVYHU
EDQG 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH EHVWHKW IU GLH 5HJLRQ 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH
LP +DXVlU]WHEHUHLFK HLQH 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ YRQ GXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK (LQZRKQHU
SUR +DXVDU]W $XI (LQZRKQHU NDPHQ LQ GHU 5HJLRQ +DXVlU]WH GHU %XQGHV
GXUFKVFKQLWW OLHJW EHL +DXVlU]WHQ YJO 5HJLRQDOHU 3ODQXQJVYHUEDQG 0HFNOHQEXU
JLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH 6 $XFK LQQHUKDOE GHU 5HJLRQ 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH
HUJHEHQ VLFK JUDYLHUHQGH 9HUWHLOXQJVXQWHUVFKLHGH NRPPHQ LP $OWNUHLV 0HFNOHQEXUJ
6WUHOLW] (LQZRKQHU DXI HLQHQ +DXVDU]W VLQG HV LP /DQGNUHLV 'HPPLQ ÄQXU³ (LQZRKQHU$U]W
'LH %HWUDFKWXQJ DOOHU 'DWHQ EHOHJW GDVV 'HXWVFKODQG XQWHU HLQHU )HKOYHUWHLOXQJ $OORNDWL
RQVSUREOHP LQ GHU lU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ OHLGHW YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 I XQG :HV
VHOV 6 9RU DOOHP GLH /DQGNUHLVH 6WDUQEHUJ %D\HUQ PLW )UHLEXUJ LP
%UHLVJDX %DGHQ:UWWHPEHUJ PLW XQG 0QFKHQ PLW VLQG EHUYHUVRUJW
6WDWLVWLVFK EHOHJWH 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ JLEW HV ELVODQJ QXU LQ HLQHP 3ODQXQJVNUHLV 'HXWVFK
ODQGV QlPOLFK GHP 6DDONUHLV 6DFKVHQ$QKDOW 9RU DOOHP OlQGOLFKH VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKH
'LHVH EXQGHVZHLW JHOWHQGH 5LFKWOLQLH ZLUG YRP *HPHLQVDPHQ %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV *%$ HUVWHOOW XQG
VWHOOW GLH *UXQGODJH IU GLH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ GHU .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ %XQGHVYHUHLQLJXQJ .%9 GDU
54
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
5HJLRQHQ VLQG HKHU XQWHUYHUVRUJW XQG 5HJLRQHQ LP 6GHQ 'HXWVFKODQGV EHUYHUVRUJW
YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 XQG :HVVHOV 6 „Summiert man die Zahl der
fehlenden Hausärzte, rechnet also zusammen, wie viel Ärzte notwendig wären, um in den
Planungsbereichen mit Versorgungsgraden von weniger als 100 % das Soll an Ärzten
]X HUUHLFKHQ NRPPW PDQ EXQGHVZHLW IU GDV -DKU DXI +DXVlU]WH³ .ORVH
5HKEHLQ 6 ,P *HJHQVDW] GD]X EHWUlJW GLH =DKO GHU EHUVFKVVLJHQ +DXVlU]WH
'LH )HKDOORNDWLRQ ZLUG KLHU GHXWOLFK GHQQ HV PDQJHOW QLFKW DQ bU]WHQ GLHVH VLQG
QXU UHJLRQDO XQJOHLFK YHUWHLOW $XFK GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ PLW )DFKlU]WHQ XQWHUOLHJW UHJLRQDOHQ
6FKZDQNXQJHQ 6R NDQQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ LQ GHU DXJHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ
VRZRKO GHQ K|FKVWHQ /. 0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] DOV DXFK HLQHQ GHU QLHGULJVWHQ
9HUVRUJXQJVJUDGH /. %DG 'REHUDQ YRUZHLVHQ )U DOOH DQGHUHQ )DFKULFKWXQJHQ
HUJHEHQ VLFK IROJHQGH 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDGH LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
$QlVWKHVLVWHQ $XJHQlU]WH &KLUXUJHQ ,QWHUQLVWHQ )UDXHQlU]WH +12bU]WH +DXWlU]WH .LQGHUlU]WH 1HUYHQlU]WH 2UWKRSlGHQ 3V\FKRWKHUDSHXWHQ 5DGLRORJHQ 8URORJHQ YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ 6 II
'LHVH =DKOHQ UFNHQ GHQ SURNODPLHUWHQ bU]WHPDQJHO LP %HUHLFK GHU )DFKDU]WYHUVRUJXQJ
LQ ZHLWH )HUQH MHGHQIDOOV IU GDV JHVDPWH %XQGHVODQG 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ (LQH
3UREOHPDWLN GLH QLFKW EHDFKWHW ZLUG LVW GDVV GLH 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH KlX¿J JUR‰ÀlFKLJ VLQG
XQG VLFK +DXV XQG )DFKDU]WSUD[HQ LQ JU|‰HUHQ 6WlGWHQ EH¿QGHQ ZlKUHQG GLH XPOLHJHQ
GHQ *HPHLQGHQ XQWHUYHUVRUJW VLQG %HLVSLHOKDIW VHL KLHU DXI GHQ $OWNUHLV 0HFNOHQEXUJ
6WUHOLW] YHUZLHVHQ LQ GHP LP -DKU GHU WlWLJHQ )DFKlU]WH LQ 1HXVWUHOLW] SUDN
WL]LHUWHQ XQG GLH YHUEOHLEHQGHQ VLFK DXI GLH XPOLHJHQGHQ *HPHLQGHQ YHUWHLOWHQ
YJO )LVFKHU 6 'LHV YHUGHXWOLFKW GLH PDVVLYH )HKOYHUWHLOXQJ 'LHVH NRPPW
DXFK ]XP $XVGUXFN ZHQQ PDQ GLH EXQGHVZHLWH 9HUWHLOXQJ YRQ )DFKlU]WHQ NOHLQUlXPLJ
EHWUDFKWHW ,Q 6WUDOVXQG EHWUXJ GHU 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDG GHU +DXWlU]WH LP -DKU ZlKUHQG GLHVHU LP /DQGNUHLV /FKRZ'DQQHQEHUJ EHWUlJW YJO .ORVH5HKEHLQ
6 'HUDUWLJH 9HUWHLOXQJVPXVWHU ODVVHQ VLFK DXFK LQ DQGHUHQ 5HJLRQHQ IU DOOH
YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ $EWHLOXQJHQ ZLHGHU¿QGHQ „Einer Unterversorgung bzw. drohenden
Unterversorgung in einigen Landstrichen steht eine massive Überversorgung insbesondere in Ballungsgebieten und für Ärzte attraktiven Regionen gegenüber.“ .ORVH5HKEHLQ
6 ,Q GHU %XQGHVUHSXEOLN YRQ HLQHP JHQHUHOOHQ bU]WHPDQJHO ]X UHGHQ LVW
GHPQDFK IDOVFK (V OLHJW OHGLJOLFK HLQH JUDYLHUHQGH UHJLRQDOH )HKOYHUWHLOXQJ YRU
55
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
'DEHL VROOWH DEHU HLQ )DNWRU GHU HEHQIDOOV HQWVFKHLGHQG LVW EHL GHU %HWUDFKWXQJ GHU 9HUVRU
JXQJVVLWXDWLRQ QLFKW DX‰HU $FKW JHODVVHQ ZHUGHQ GLH $OWHUVVWUXNWXU GHU bU]WH ,QVJHVDPW
OlVVW VLFK HLQ $QVWLHJ GHV 'XUFKVFKQLWWVDOWHUV GHU bU]WH IHVWVWHOOHQ ZLH GLH $EELOGXQJ ]HLJW %XQGHVZHLW VLQG GHU bU]WH EHU -DKUH DOW ,Q 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ
VLQG GLHV +DXVlU]WH VLQG LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ -DKUH XQG lOWHU
'HU *UR‰WHLO GHU SUDNWL]LHUHQGHQ bU]WH LVW ]ZLVFKHQ XQG -DKUH DOW GHU bU]
WH DUEHLWHQ JHJHQZlUWLJ DXFK EHU GDV 5HQWHQDOWHU ! KLQDXV (LQ P|JOLFKHU *UXQG
VLQG IHKOHQGH 1DFKIROJHU IU GLH 3UD[LVEHUQDKPH GHQQ GHQ PLWWOHUHQ XQG lOWHUHQ $OWHUV
JUXSSHQ VWHKHQ QXU ZHQLJH MXQJH JHJHQEHU 'LH $EELOGXQJ DXI 6 GLHVHU $UEHLW
]HLJW GDVV FD SUDNWL]LHUHQGH bU]WH LQ XQVHUHP %XQGHVODQG LQ GHQ QlFKVWHQ -DKUHQ
LQ GHQ 5XKHVWDQG JHKHQ :LH YLHOH GHU 0HGL]LQDEVROYHQWHQ VLFK DEHU LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ QLHGHUODVVHQ ZHUGHQ EOHLEW IUDJOLFK 6R ]HLJW GHU 9HUJOHLFK GHU QHX HUWHLOWHQ
=XODVVXQJHQ XQG =XODVVXQJVEHHQGLJXQJHQ LQ GHU 5HJLRQ 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODW
WH GDVV ]ZLVFKHQ XQG =XODVVXQJHQ HUWHLOW XQG =XODVVXQJHQ EHHQGHW
ZXUGHQ /DXW $QJDEHQ GHU .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VX
FKHQ DNWXHOO bU]WH HLQHQ 1DFKIROJHU IU LKUH 3UD[LV YJO KWWSERHUVH
3UD[LVERHUVHB5HVXOWFIP 'LH PRPHQWDQH 6LWXDWLRQ OlVVW EHIUFKWHQ GDVV HV ]X ZHLWH
UHQ 3UD[LVVFKOLH‰XQJHQ XQG 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ NRPPHQ ZLUG )U GLH 5HJLRQ 0HFNOHQ
EXUJLVFKH 6HQQSODWWH ZLUG HLQ 5FNJDQJ GHU +DXVlU]WH ELV XP FD SURJQRVWL
]LHUW LP 9HUJOHLFK ]XP -DKU YJO 5HJLRQDOHU 3ODQXQJVYHUEDQG 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH
6HHQSODWWH 6 II
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Vertragsärzte
stationär tätige Ärzte
$EELOGXQJ 'XUFKVFKQLWWOLFKHV $OWHU GHU bU]WH QDFK DPEXODQWHP XQG VWDWLRQlUHP 6HNWRU YJO .R
SHWVFK 6 HLJHQH 'DUVWHOOXQJ
'RFK DXFK GLH $OWHUVDEJlQJH EHGLQJHQ ODXW .ORVH HW DO 6 NHLQHQ JHQHUHOOHQ
bU]WHPDQJHO DXFK QLFKW LQ GHU +DXVDU]WYHUVRUJXQJ 6HOEVW ZHQQ QXU MHGH ]ZHLWH 3UD[LV
ZLHGHU EHVHW]W ZHUGHQ ZUGH JlEH HV NHLQH JHQHUHOOH 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ 'DVV GLHVH =DK
OHQ YLHOOHLFKW IU GLH 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH JHOWHQ DEHU QLFKW IU EHVWLPPWH *HPHLQGHQ RGHU
56
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
6WlGWH EHOHJW HLQ DNWXHOOHV %HLVSLHO :ROGHJN LP .UHLV 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH
VXFKW YHU]ZHLIHOW /DQGlU]WH GD GLH YLHU SUDNWL]LHUHQGHQ bU]WH ]ZLVFKHQ XQG -DKUH
DOW VLQG +LHU]X ZHUGHQ $Q]HLJHQ LQ GHU bU]WH =HLWXQJ JHVFKDOWHW GLH DEHU ELVKHU HUIROJ
ORV EOLHEHQ YJO %|KP 6 $XFK DQ GLHVHP DNWXHOOHQ %HLVSLHO VWHOOW VLFK GDU
GDVV REZRKO 'HXWVFKODQG EHU PHKU +DXVlU]WH DOV Q|WLJ YHUIJW HLQLJH 5HJLRQHQ YRU
DOOHP VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKH OlQGOLFKH 5HJLRQHQ XQWHUYHUVRUJW VLQG
(LQ ZHLWHUHV (OHPHQW GDV $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GLH $U]W]DKOHQ KDW LVW GLH $EZDQGHUXQJ
YRQ bU]WHQ LQV $XVODQG „Im Ergebnis lässt sich feststellen, dass im Jahre 2010 insgesamt
XUVSUQJOLFK LQ 'HXWVFKODQG WlWLJH bU]WLQQHQ XQG bU]WH LQV $XVODQG DEJHZDQGHUW
sind, wobei der Anteil der deutschen Ärzte 68,7 % beträgt.“ KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WH
NDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV %HVVHUH $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ XQG DWWUDNWLYHUH
9HUGLHQVWP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ORFNHQ YHUPHKUW bU]WH LQV $XVODQG
$XFK LP VWDWLRQlUHQ %HUHLFK KDWWHQ GHU .UDQNHQKlXVHU LP -DKU 6FKZLHULJ
NHLWHQ RIIHQH 6WHOOHQ ]X EHVHW]HQ +RFKJHUHFKQHW HQWVSULFKW GDV XQEHVHW]WHQ 9ROO
]HLWVWHOOHQ 6WHOOHQ HQWIDOOHQ DXI OlQGOLFKH 5lXPH (LQH JHQDXH 8QWHUVFKHLGXQJ QDFK
%XQGHVOlQGHUQ JLEW HV PRPHQWDQ QRFK QLFKW $OOHUGLQJV VLQG YRP bU]WHPDQJHO EHVRQ
GHUV NOHLQH .UDQNHQKlXVHU XQG VROFKH LQ OlQGOLFKHQ *HELHWHQ EHWURIIHQ YJO %OXP/|I
IHUW D 6 $XFK GLH 'HXWVFKH bU]WH]HLWXQJ EHULFKWHWH EHU GHQ GURKHQGHQ
bU]WHPDQJHO DQ .UDQNHQKlXVHUQ YJO KWWSZZZDHU]WH]HLWXQJGHSUD[LVBZLUWVFKDIW
NOLQLNPDQDJHPHQWDUWLFOHDHU]WHPDQJHOEHGURKWNOLQLNHQKWPO %OXP/|IIHUW
6 JHKHQ YRQ ]XVlW]OLFK EHQ|WLJWHQ bU]WHQ ELV DXV VRZRKO LP
DPEXODQWHQ DOV DXFK LP VWDWLRQlUHQ %HUHLFK $XFK GXUFK 1HX]XJlQJH $EVROYHQWHQ GHU
0HGL]LQ NDQQ GHU %HGDUI DQ bU]WHQ QLFKW JHGHFNW ZHUGHQ (V YHUEOHLEHQ IHKOHQ
GH 6WHOOHQ %HWUDFKWHW PDQ GLH *HVDPW]DKO GHU 0HGL]LQVWXGHQWHQ LVW VHLW HLQ OHLFKWHU
5FNJDQJ IHVW]XVWHOOHQ JDE HV 6WXGHQWHQ XQG LQVJHVDPW YJO
.REHWVFK 6 'LH =DKO GHU $EVROYHQWHQ VDQN YRQ ELV YRQ DXI
-lKUOLFK VWHKHQ FD 6WXGLHQSOlW]H IU 0HGL]LQVWXGHQWHQ ]XU 9HUIJXQJ
%HULFKWH EHU 6FKOLH‰XQJHQ YRQ .UDQNHQKlXVHUQ RGHU HLQ]HOQHQ $EWHLOXQJHQ VLQG LPPHU
ZLHGHU ,QKDOW GHU 0HGLHQEHULFKWHUVWDWWXQJ GRFK GHU /DQGHVNUDQNHQKDXVSODQ 0HFNOHQ
EXUJ9RUSRPPHUQV DXV GHP -DKU EHVDJW „Die Versorgung mit KrankenhausleistunJHQ VROO LP )OlFKHQODQG 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ P|JOLFKVW ÀlFKHQGHFNHQG HUIROJHQ
Dies ist trotz zunehmend wirtschaftlich notwendiger Konzentration in MecklenburgVorpommern nach wie vor gewährleistet.“ .UDQNHQKDXVSODQ GHV /DQGHV 0HFN
OHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 6 2E HLQH $EWHLOXQJ VFKOLH‰W RGHU QLFKW KlQJW YHUHLQIDFKW
JHVDJW YRQ GHUHQ $XVODVWXQJ XQG GDPLW (UZLUWVFKDIWXQJ ¿QDQ]LHOOHU 0LWWHO DE :LUG QLFKW
JHQXJ *HOG HLQJHQRPPHQ GURKW GLH 6FKOLH‰XQJ $EELOGXQJ ]HLJW GLH HUIRUGHUOLFKHQ
$XVODVWXQJVJUDGH
57
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
$EELOGXQJ $XVODVWXQJVJUDGH GHU .UDQNHQKDXVDEWHLOXQJHQ .UDQNHQKDXVSODQ GHV /DQGHV
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ 6 (LQH (UK|KXQJ GHU .DSD]LWlW LVW P|JOLFK ZHQQ EHU ]Z|OI 0RQDWH GHU $XVODVWXQJVJUDG
GHXWOLFK EHUVFKULWWHQ ZLUG 6HLW FD ]HKQ -DKUHQ OLHJW GLH $Q]DKO YRQ .UDQNHQKlXVHUQ LQ
0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ EHL GDYRQ VLQG 3ODQNUDQNHQKlXVHU 6FKOLH‰XQJHQ
VLQG NQIWLJ QLFKW YRUJHVHKHQ 'LH %HWWHQDQ]DKO VDQN LQVJHVDPW YRQ DXI
ZDV DXIJUXQG GHV %HY|ONHUXQJVUFNJDQJV DEHU GHQQRFK HLQH 6WHLJHUXQJ
GHU %HWWDQ]DKO MH (LQZRKQHU YRQ DXI EHGHXWHW YJO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHW
GHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
:HOFKH (PSIHKOXQJHQ HV ]XU %HVHLWLJXQJ GHU )HKODOORNDWLRQ JLEW ZLUG LQ .DSLWHO GLHVHU $UEHLW DXIJHJULIIHQ
$XÀ|VXQJ GHV *HQHUDWLRQHQYHUWUDJHV =XVDPPHQEUXFK GHV 6\VWHPV GHU
6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ"
„Die Generation meiner Kinder hat dadurch, dass sie nur wenige Kinder hat, den Generationenvertrag längst aufgekündigt. Die Vorstellung, man könne eine Umlagesystem
unbeschadet der demographischen Entwicklung und der Bereitschaft der Bevölkerung,
Kapital zu bilden, auf Jahrzehnte hinaus garantieren, ist unrealistisch.....Der Generationenvertrag ist demographisch gekündigt“ .XUW %LHGHQNRSI &'8 0LQLVWHUSUlVLGHQW
YRQ 6DFKVHQ 'HU *HQHUDWLRQHQYHUWUDJ EHVFKUHLEW GLH 9HUÀHFKWXQJ GHU *HQHUDWLRQHQ GXUFK /HLVWXQJHQ
XQG *HJHQOHLVWXQJHQ 'UHL *HQHUDWLRQHQ VLQG 7HLO GHV 9HUWUDJHV ZREHL GLH PLWWOHUH *H
QHUDWLRQ IU GHQ 8QWHUKDOW GHU noch nicht und QLFKW PHKU (UZHUEVWlWLJHQ VRUJW ,KUH JH
VHW]OLFKH $OWHUVYHUVRUJXQJ ZLUG HUVW GXUFK GLH (LQ]DKOXQJHQ GHU *HQHUDWLRQ LKUHU 1DFK
NRPPHQ UHDOLVLHUW YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 8P GLH )XQNWLRQVIlKLJNHLW
GHV VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPV DXIUHFKW ]X HUKDOWHQ LVW HLQ DXVJHJOLFKHQHV 9HUKlOWQLV
GHU *HQHUDWLRQHQ HUIRUGHUOLFK „Angesichts des zunehmenden Anteils Älterer an der Ge58
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
samtbevölkerung wird […] zunehmend von einer ökonomischen Belastung der Jüngeren
durch die Älteren gesprochen, was sich in Begriffen wie „Alterslast“, „Rentnerberg“
oder gar „Rentnerschwemme“ widerspiegelt.“ 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 I
$XVJHEOHQGHW ZLUG EHL GLHVHU 6LFKWZHLVH GDVV bOWHUH QLFKW QXU (PSIlQJHU YRQ /HLV
WXQJHQ VLQG VRQGHUQ DXFK HLQHQ DNWLYHQ VR]LDOHQ XQG JHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHQ %HLWUDJ OHLVWHQ
$XFK ZHQQ LKUH 7lWLJNHLWHQ QLFKW YHUJWHW ZHUGHQ EHGHXWHQ VLH HLQH HQRUPH (QWODVWXQJ
GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW XQG GHV 6WDDWHV 'LH 5HGH LVW ] % YRQ .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJ RGHU 3ÀHJH XQG
9HUVRUJXQJ EHGUIWLJHU $QJHK|ULJHU 'DUEHU KLQDXV ZHUGHQ GXUFK GLUHNWH XQG LQGLUHNWH
6WHXHUQ 6WDDWVDXIJDEHQ ¿QDQ]LHUW GLH DXFK -QJHUHQ ]X *XWH NRPPHQ
'HQQRFK ZHUGHQ GLH 6R]LDONDVVHQ GXUFK HLQH $EQDKPH GHU $Q]DKO EHLWUDJV]DKOHQGHU (U
ZHUEVWlWLJHU XQG HLQHU =XQDKPH YRQ 5HQWQHUQ GLH GDUEHU KLQDXV OlQJHU 5HQWH EH]LHKHQ
NQIWLJ VWlUNHU EHODVWHW
6R ZHUGHQ LP -DKU ]ZLVFKHQ 8QWHUJUHQ]H ÄPLWWOHUH³ %HY|ONHUXQJ
XQG 2EHUJUHQ]H ÄPLWWOHUH³ %HY|ONHUXQJ 3HUVRQHQ LP HUZHUEVIlKLJHQ $OWHU
DOVR ]ZLVFKHQ ELV -DKUHQ VHLQ 'LH $Q]DKO GHU -lKULJHQ VWHLJW DXI E]Z 'HU $OWHQTXRWLHQW EHWUJH DXI (UZHUEVWlWLJH NlPHQ GHPQDFK
3HUVRQHQ EHU $XIJUXQG GHU $QKHEXQJ GHV 5HQWHQDOWHUV DXI N|QQHQ VLFK KLHU
OHLFKWH bQGHUXQJHQ HUJHEHQ XQG GHU $OWHQTXRWLHQW ZUGH DXI VLQNHQ YJO 6WDWLV
WLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW 6 I 'LH $QKHEXQJ GHU 5HQWHQJUHQ]H VWHOOW JOHLFK]HLWLJ HLQHQ
6FKULWW ]XU $XIUHFKWHUKDOWXQJ GHV VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPV GDU GD GXUFK HLQH 9HU
OlQJHUXQJ GHU /HEHQVDUEHLWV]HLW OlQJHU HLQJH]DKOW XQG NU]HU 5HQWH EHDQVSUXFKW ZLUG
'RFK IUDJOLFK LVW ZLH YLHOH GHU bOWHUHQ WDWVlFKOLFK LQ $QVWHOOXQJ EOHLEHQ N|QQHQ E]Z
ZLHGHU HLQH $QVWHOOXQJ ¿QGHQ ZHUGHQ 6R VLQG XQWHU GHQ KRFKTXDOL¿]LHUWHQ ELV -lK
ULJHQ HUZHUEVWlWLJ DEHU QXU GHU JHULQJ 4XDOL¿]LHUWHQ 'HU %LOGXQJVJUDG ZLUG
DXFK DXIJUXQG GHV )DFKNUlIWHPDQJHOV LQ LPPHU JU|‰HUHP $XVPD‰ GDUEHU HQWVFKHLGHQ
RE MHPDQG DXFK LP IRUWJHVFKULWWHQHQ $OWHU $UEHLW ¿QGHW RGHU QLFKW YJO .U|KQHUW2OVW
.OLQJKRO] 6 I 'LH $OWHUVVLFKHUXQJ EDXW LQ 'HXWVFKODQG DXI GUHL 6lXOHQ DXI GHU
5HJHOVLFKHUXQJ GHU EHWULHEOLFKHQ XQG GHU SULYDWHQ $OWHUVYRUVRUJH 'LH VWDDWOLFKH $OWHUV
UHQWH ZLUG LQ 'HXWVFKODQG JHZlKUW ZHQQ HLQH EHVWLPPWH :DUWH]HLW HUIOOW LVW 'LH +|KH
GHU 5HQWH ULFKWHW VLFK PD‰JHEOLFK QDFK GHU 'DXHU LQ GHU %HLWUlJH HLQJH]DKOW ZXUGHQ DOVR
GHU -DKUH GHU (UZHUEVWlWLJNHLW )LQDQ]LHUW ZLUG GLH 5HQWH EHUZLHJHQG DXV %HLWUlJHQ GHU
$UEHLWQHKPHU XQG ±JHEHU FD DXV %XQGHV]XVFKVVHQ FD XQG 9HUP|JHQVHU
WUlJHQ XQG VRQVWLJHQ (LQQDKPHQ GXUFK GDV 8PODJHYHUIDKUHQ YJO 1DJHO 6 I
'DV EHGHXWHW GLH KHXWH JH]DKOWHQ %HLWUlJH ZHUGHQ LP VHOEHQ -DKU DQ 5HQWQHU DXVJH]DKOW
0DQ ]DKOW HUJR QLFKW IU VHLQH HLJHQH 5HQWH 'LHV EHUQHKPHQ GLH QDFKIROJHQGHQ *HQH
UDWLRQHQ (V ZHUGHQ NHLQH 5FNODJHQ IU GLH =XNXQIW JHELOGHW
*HQDX ZLH GLH 5HQWHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ GLH KLHU PLW DQJHIKUW ZXUGH ZHLO VLH HLQ ZHVHQW
OLFKHU 7HLO GHV VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPV LVW DXFK ZHQQ NHLQ GLUHNWHU =XVDPPHQKDQJ
]XP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ EHVWHKW ZHUGHQ DXFK GLH *.9 XQG GLH VR]LDOH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKH
UXQJ EHU GDV 8PODJHYHUIDKUHQ ¿QDQ]LHUW 'LHVHV )LQDQ]LHUXQJVV\VWHP NDQQ QXU VR ODQJH
DXIUHFKW HUKDOWHQ ZHUGHQ ZLH JHQJHQG %HLWUDJV]DKOHU ]XU 9HUIJXQJ VWHKHQ XQG DXVUHL
FKHQG .LQGHU JHERUHQ ZHUGHQ GLH NQIWLJ IU GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU bOWHUHQ DXINRPPHQ
59
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
,P 8UWHLO GHV %XQGHVYHUIDVVXQJVJHULFKWV YRP %Y5 KHL‰W HV GD]X
„Wenn aber ein soziales Leistungssystem ein Risiko abdecken soll, das vor allem die Altengeneration trifft, und seine Finanzierung so gestaltet ist, dass sie im Wesentlichen nur durch das Vorhandensein nachwachsender Generationen funktioniert, die jeweils im erwerbsfähigen Alter als
Beitragszahler die mit den Versicherungsfällen der vorangegangenen Generationen entstehenden
Kosten mittragen, dann ist für ein solches System nicht nur der Versicherungsbeitrag, sondern auch
die Kindererziehungsleistung konstitutiv. Wird dieser generative Beitrag nicht mehr in der Regel von
DOOHQ 9HUVLFKHUWHQ HUEUDFKW IKUW GLHV ]X HLQHU VSH]L¿VFKHQ %HODVWXQJ NLQGHUHU]LHKHQGHU 9HUVLFKHUWHU LP 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJVV\VWHP GHUHQ EHQDFKWHLOLJHQGH :LUNXQJ DXFK LQQHUKDOE GLHVHV 6\VWHPV
DXV]XJOHLFKHQ LVW 'LH NLQGHUHU]LHKHQGHQ 9HUVLFKHUWHQ VLFKHUQ GLH )XQNWLRQVIlKLJNHLW GHU 3ÀHJHYHUsicherung also nicht nur durch Beitragszahlung, sondern auch durch Betreuung und Erziehung von
Kindern.“ KWWSZZZEYHUIJGHHQWVFKHLGXQJHQUVBEYUKWPO
$XFK GLH $XVJDEHQ GHU *.9 ZHUGHQ LP =XJH GHV ZHLWHU YRUDQVFKUHLWHQGHQ PHGL]LQLVFK
WHFKQLVFKHQ )RUWVFKULWWV XQG GHU =XQDKPH YRQ 0XOWLPRUELGLWlW XQG GHU $Q]DKO bOWHUHU
VWHLJHQ 'DUEHU KLQDXV ]DKOHQ bOWHUH JHULQJHUH %HLWUlJH FD GLH +lOIWH GHV %HLWUDJHV (U
ZHUEVWlWLJHU QHKPHQ DEHU PHKU /HLVWXQJHQ DOV -QJHUH LQ $QVSUXFK „Die demographische Entwicklung führt längerfristig zu einer tendenziell sinkenden Einnahmenbasis der
Versicherungen, während die Ausgaben für die Krankenversorgung in Zukunft steigen
werden.“ 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 ,Q ZHOFKHP $XVPD‰ EOHLEW XQJHZLVV GD
GLH PHGL]LQLVFKHQ (UUXQJHQVFKDIWHQ DXFK GDIU VRUJHQ GDVV VFKZHUH .UDQNKHLWHQ IUKHU
HUNDQQW ZHUGHQ XQG JDU QLFKW HUVW LKU YROOHV .RVWHQ$XVPD‰ HUUHLFKHQ XQG GDUEHU KL
QDXV GLH *HVXQGKHLW JHQHUHOO OlQJHU HUKDOWHQ EOHLEW
'LH (LQQDKPHSUREOHPDWLN GHU *.9 UHVXOWLHUW NQIWLJ PHKU GHQQ MH DXV (LQQDKPHDXVIlO
OHQ DEQHKPHQGH %HY|ONHUXQJ 'D GLH .UDQNHQNDVVHQ PRPHQWDQ DEHU JUR‰H *HZLQQH
]X YHU]HLFKQHQ KDEHQ XQG HLQ hEHUVFKXVV YRQ 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR ]X YHU]HLFKQHQ LVW
EHGDUI HV LQ QDKHU =XNXQIW NHLQHU %HLWUDJVHUK|KXQJHQ
%HUHLWV YRQ DXI VWLHJHQ GLH $XVJDEHQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ XP 0LOOLDUGHQ DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR 'LH $XVJDEHQ DPEXODQWHU 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQ
JHQ EHOLHIHQ VLFK DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR XQG GLH GHU WHLOVWDWLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ DXI
0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 'LH VWHLJHQGHQ $XVJDEHQ GHU
VWDWLRQlUHQ 3ÀHJH ]HLJHQ GDVV HLQ JUR‰HV =LHO ZHOFKHV PLW (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVL
FKHUXQJ HUUHLFKW ZHUGHQ VROOWH QlPOLFK GHU 9HUEOHLE 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU LQ LKUHU KlXVOLFKHQ
8PJHEXQJ QLFKW HUUHLFKW ZXUGH YJO 6LPRQ 6 Ä'LH VR]LDOH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZDQGWH IU LQVJHVDPW 0LOOLRQHQ DPEXODQW YHUVRUJWH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH
rund 9,6 Milliarden Euro auf, für 702 000 stationär versorgte Kranke dagegen 9,8 Milliarden.“ 2IIHUJHOG 'LHVHV =DKOHQEHLVSLHO VWHOOW EHLVSLHOKDIW GLH KHUDXVUDJHQGH
%HGHXWXQJ GHV IDPLOLlUHQ 3ÀHJHSRWHQ]LDOV GDU 'HU :HFKVHO LQ GLH VWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH JH
VFKLHKW YRU DOOHP ZHQQ $QJHK|ULJH VLFK QLFKW PHKU LQ GHU /DJH VHKHQ GHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUI
WLJHQ ]X YHUVRUJHQ =ZDU QHKPHQ VLH EHL K|KHUHP $XIZDQG YHUPHKUW .RPELQDWLRQVOHLV
WXQJHQ 6DFK XQG *HOGOHLVWXQJHQ LQ $QVSUXFK DEHU LQ JHULQJHP $XVPD‰ 'DEHL N|QQWH
GDV +LQ]X]LHKHQ DPEXODQWHU 'LHQVWH HLQHQ 9HUEOHLE LP HLJHQHQ +HLP JHZlKUOHLVWHQ
60
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP
9LHOH 3ÀHJHQGH HPS¿QGHQ GDV +LQ]X]LHKHQ SURIHVVLRQHOOHU +LOIH DOV (LQJHVWlQGQLV LKUHU
HLJHQHQ )HKOEDUNHLW RGHU OHKQHQ HV DXI :XQVFK GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ DE GLH QLFKW YRQ
)UHPGHQ YHUVRUJW ZHUGHQ ZROOHQ :LH VRZRKO GLH VR]LDOH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ DOV DXFK
SÀHJHQGH $QJHK|ULJH HQWODVWHW ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ ZLUG LQ .DSLWHO JHQDXHU EHVFKULHEHQ
*HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ DOV $UEHLWJHEHU
„Das Gesundheitssystem ist nicht nur Kostenfaktor, sondern auch bedeutender Wirtschaftsfaktor.“ 6LPRQ 6 'LH LQ GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ UDVDQW IRUWVFKUHLWHQGH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVPDUNWHV
OlVVW VLFK EHVRQGHUV JXW DQ GHQ VWHLJHQGHQ =DKOHQ GHU %HVFKlIWLJWHQ DEOHVHQ /DXW 6WDWLVWL
VFKHP %XQGHVDPW DUEHLWHWHQ LP -DKU FD 3HUVRQHQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
GDYRQ ZDUHQ )UDXHQ YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E 6 GHU
%HVFKlIWLJWHQ DUEHLWHWHQ LQ DPEXODQWHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ $U]W =DKQDU]WSUD[HQ $SRWKH
NHQ HWF XQG LQ WHLOVWDWLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ 'HU *UR‰WHLO GHU %HVFKlIWLJXQ
JHQ HQWIlOOW DXI *HVXQGKHLWV XQG .UDQNHQSÀHJHU $OWHQSÀHJHU +HLOHU]LHKXQJVSÀHJHU
XQG +HLOSlGDJRJHQ PLW bU]WH XQG =DKQlU]WH VWHOOHQ GHU %HVFKlIWLJWHQ
GHU %HVFKlIWLJXQJHQ ZHUGHQ LQ 7HLO]HLW HUEUDFKW YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW
E 6 (LQ 9HUJOHLFK GHU $Q]DKO %HVFKlIWLJWHU LP -DKU PDFKW DXI GHQ $Q
VWLHJ DXIPHUNVDP GDPDOV ZDUHQ LQVJHVDPW 3HUVRQHQ LP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ
EHVFKlIWLJW ZDV HLQHQ $QVWLHJ ]X YRQ EHGHXWHW YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHV
DPW F 6 'HU :HUW GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV DOV $UEHLWJHEHU NRPPW GDPLW ]XP
$XVGUXFN XQG ]HLJW HEHQIDOOV GDVV GLH $XVJDEHQ GHU )LQDQ]LHUXQJVWUlJHU HEHQIDOOV DOV
8PVDW] ]X ZHUWHQ VLQG GHU ]XU )LQDQ]LHUXQJ YRQ $UEHLWVSOlW]HQ JHQXW]W ZLUG (V NDQQ
GDYRQ DXVJHJDQJHQ ZHUGHQ GDVV GLH $QIRUGHUXQJHQ HLQHU lOWHU ZHUGHQGHQ *HVHOOVFKDIW
DXFK ZHLWHUKLQ PLW HLQHP VWHLJHQGHQ %HGDUI DQ *HVXQGKHLWVSHUVRQDO YHUEXQGHQ VLQG
6R ZXUGH LQ GLHVHU $UEHLW EHUHLWV GUDXI KLQJHZLHVHQ GDVV ELV LQ GHQ 3ÀHJHHLQ
ULFKWXQJHQ GHXWVFKODQGZHLW GHU %HGDUI DQ 9ROO]HLWNUlIWHQ XP VWHLJHQ ZLUG YJO
$IHQWDNLV0DLHU 6 $EHU DXFK LP %HUHLFK SUlYHQWLYHU *HVXQGKHLWVOHLVWXQJHQ
LVW PLW HLQHP $QVWLHJ ]X UHFKQHQ GD YLHOHQ 0HQVFKHQ KHXWH PHKU DOV QRFK YRU HLQLJHQ
-DKU]HKQWHQ ± EHZXVVW LVW GDVV VLH GXUFK LKU 9HUKDOWHQ LKUH *HVXQGKHLW EHHLQÀXVVHQ
61
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
5. Exkurs: Alter als Chance
(QWZLFNOXQJ GHU /HEHQVSKDVH $OWHU
'HU $XVWUDOLHU $OODQ 6WHZDUW KDW PLW -DKUHQ VHLQ YLHUWHV 6WXGLXP DEJHVFKORVVHQ YJO
KWWSZZZVSLHJHOGHXQLVSLHJHOZXQGHUEDUDHOWHVWHUVWXGHQWDXVWUDOLHUDOODQVWHZDUW
PDFKWYLHUWHQXQLDEVFKOXVVDKWPO 0LW -DKUHQ KDW VLFK GHU %ULWH )DXMD
6LQJK GHQ 7LWHO DOV lOWHVWHU 0DUDWKRQOlXIHU GHU :HOW JHVLFKHUW YJO KWWSZZZQHZV
GHJHVHOOVFKDIWMDHKULJHUODHXIWUHNRUGPDUDWKRQ 'HU -DKUH DOWH
-DSDQHU .DWVXVXNH <DQDJLVDZD KDW DOV ELVODQJ lOWHVWHU 0HQVFKHQ GHQ 0RXQW (YHUHVW
EH]ZXQJHQ YJO KWWSZZZHSRFKWLPHVGHMDHKULJHUDOVDHOWHVWHUPHQVFKDXIGHP
PRXQWHYHUHVWKWPO 1LNL /DXGD ZXUGH PLW NQDSS -DKUHQ ]XP YLHUWHQ 0DO
9DWHU ([%HDWOH 3DXO 0F&DUWQH\ ZXUGH PLW -DKUHQ 9DWHU 1LFN 1ROWH PLW -DKUHQ
XQG $QWKRQ\ 4XLQQ PLW -DKUHQ YJO KWWSZZZNOHLQH]HLWXQJDWQDFKULFKWHQOHXWH
PXOWLPHGLDGR"DFWLRQ VKRZ(QWU\BGHWDLO SURMHFW 'LHVH $XI]lKOXQJHQ YHUGHXWOL
FKHQ GDVV VLFK GLH /HEHQVSKDVH $OWHU HQRUP JHZDQGHOW KDW „Fast alle, die heute dreißig,
vierzig, fünfzig Jahre alt sind, stellen irgendwann fest, dass sie viel jünger aussehen,
VLFK IKOHQ XQG EHQHKPHQ DOV GDV LQ GHQ %LRJUD¿HIDKUSOlQHQ YRUJHVHKHQ LVW³ 6HLGO
6 +HXWH LVW GDV Ä$OWHU³ YRQ HLQHU 9LHO]DKO DQ $XVSUlJXQJHQ JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW
XQG HLQH NODUH XQG DOOJHPHLQH (LQJUHQ]XQJ GHU /HEHQVSKDVH Ä$OWHU³ GLH DXI GLH 9RUEH
UHLWXQJV XQG (UZHUEVSKDVH IROJW XQG GXUFK GLH (LQIKUXQJ GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJV
V\VWHPH12 HQWVWDQG LVW NDXP QRFK P|JOLFK YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 'DKHU
YHUZXQGHUW HV QLFKW GDVV $XWRUHQ ZLH Laslett, Walker, Mayer und Rosenmayr IU HLQH
(UZHLWHUXQJ GHU /HEHQVSKDVH Ä$OWHU³ SOlGLHUHQ 'LHVH ZDU ELV LQ GLH HU JOHLFKEHGHX
WHQG PLW GHP (LQWULWW LQ GHQ 5XKHVWDQG 'RFK VFKRQ ODQJH JHK|UHQ 3HUVRQHQ PLW $XVWULWW
DXV GHU (UZHUEVSKDVH OlQJVW QLFKW ]XP DOWHQ (LVHQ YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 'LH KHXWLJH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ XQG HLQ VHKU IUKHV 5HQWHQHLQWULWWVDOWHU HUP|JOLFKHQ XQWHU
8PVWlQGHQ ]ZLVFKHQ XQG /HEHQVMDKUHQ LP 5XKHVWDQG 'LH (UZHLWHUXQJ E]Z 'LI
IHUHQ]LHUXQJ GHU $OWHUVSKDVH XP HLQ YLHUWHV XQG KlX¿J EHUHLWV IQIWHV /HEHQVDOWHU VFKHLQW
GDKHU QXU VLQQYROO 'LH GULWWH $OWHUVSKDVH Ä%HVW $JHU³ ÄMXQJH $OWH³ PHLVW ]ZLVFKHQ XQG -DKUH LVW JHSUlJW YRQ $NWLYLWlW XQG UHODWLYHU *HVXQGKHLW VRZLH GHU %HHQGLJXQJ
GHU )DPLOLHQSKDVH GLH .LQGHU VLQG HUZDFKVHQ XQG IKUHQ HLQ HLJHQHV /HEHQ 'DV YLHUWH
/HEHQVDOWHU Ä$OWH³ LVW JHNHQQ]HLFKQHW GXUFK HLQHQ ]XQHKPHQGHQ N|USHUOLFKHQ XQG JHLV
WLJHQ 9HUIDOO XQG JHVWHLJHUWHU $EKlQJLJNHLW 'LH ÄDOWHQ $OWHQ³ IQIWHV /HEHQVDOWHU VLQG
VFKZHU SÀHJHEHGUIWLJ XQG GDPLW YROONRPPHQ DEKlQJLJ YRQ DQGHUHQ XQG VWHKHQ NXU]
YRU GHP (QGH LKUHV /HEHQV $OOH (LQWHLOXQJHQ HUIROJHQ QLFKW ]ZDQJVOlX¿J DQKDQG GHV
NDOHQGDULVFKHQ $OWHUV VRQGHUQ DQKDQG GHU MHZHLOLJHQ N|USHUOLFKHQ VR]LDOHQ XQG SV\FKL
VFKHQ )lKLJNHLWHQ GHU 0HQVFKHQ 9JO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 I
,Q GLHVHP =XVDPPHQKDQJ PXVV DXFK GDUDXI YHUZLHVHQ ZHUGHQ GDVV YRU DOOHP GLH GULWWH
XQG YLHUWH /HEHQVSKDVH EHL ]XQHKPHQG JXWHU *HVXQGKHLW HUOHEW ZHUGHQ 'LH (UJHEQLVVH
GHV 'HXWVFKHQ $OWHUVVXUYH\V PDFKHQ GLHVH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHXWOLFK 6R ]HLJW HLQ 9HUJOHLFK
GHU (UKHEXQJVMDKUH XQG DXVGUFNOLFK GDVV VLFK GLH 0XOWLPRUELGLWlW
,P 5DKPHQ GHU %LVPDUFNµVFKHQ 6R]LDOJHVHW]JHEXQJ ZXUGH GLH ,QYDOLGLWlWV XQG 5HQWHQYHUVLFKH
UXQJ HLQJHIKUW
62
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
DXVJHGUFNW LP 9RUKDQGHQVHLQ YRQ IQI RGHU PHKU .UDQNKHLWHQ GHU $OWHUVNODVVH ELV YRQ DXI YHUULQJHUW KDW %HL GHQ ELV -lKUL
JHQ YHU]HLFKQHWHQ LP -DKU QRFK IQI XQG PHKU .UDQNKHLWHQ XQG LP -DKU
ZDUHQ HV QXU QRFK ,Q GLHVHU $OWHUVJUXSSH VDQN DXFK GDV $XIWUHWHQ YRQ ]ZHL
ELV YLHU .UDQNKHLWHQ YRQ DXI 9JO 0RWHO.OLQJHELHO 6 'LHVH =DKOHQ EHOHJHQ GDVV PLW ]XQHKPHQGHP /HEHQVDOWHU GLH .UDQNKHLWVZDKU
VFKHLQOLFKNHLW ]XQLPPW (V LVW MHGRFK IDOVFK $OWHU PLW JHVXQGKHLWOLFKHQ 'H¿]LWHQ XQG
.UDQNKHLW JOHLFK]XVHW]HQ 'HU =XJHZLQQ DQ /HEHQVTXDOLWlW GHU GXUFK OlQJHUH /HEHQV
HUZDUWXQJ EHL EHVVHUHU *HVXQGKHLW HUODQJW ZHUGHQ NDQQ PXVV SRVLWLY JHVHKHQ ZHUGHQ
+LQ]X NRPPW GDVV GLH /HEHQVZHLVH XQG DXFK GHU %LOGXQJVVWDQG HLQHQ JUR‰HQ (LQÀXVV
DXI GHQ *HVXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG KDEHQ ZDV MHGHQ HLQ]HOQHQ HUPXWLJHQ VROOWH HWZDV IU VLFK
XQG VHLQH *HVXQGKHLW ]X WXQ YJO 6D‰:XUP=LHVH 6 XQG %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP
IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG D 6 5.2 Altersbilder
„Altersbilder sind individuelle und gesellschaftliche Vorstellungen vom Alter (Zustand
des Altseins), vom Altern (Prozess des Älterwerdens) oder von älteren Menschen (die soziale Gruppe älterer Personen)“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG
-XJHQG E 6 $XV $OWHUVELOGHUQ N|QQHQ $OWHUVVWHUHRW\SHQ ZHUGHQ ZHQQ 0HQ
VFKHQ DXIJUXQG LKUHV $OWHUV EHVWLPPWH (LJHQVFKDIWHQ ]XJHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ RKQH DXI
LKUH ZDKUHQ 9HUKDOWHQVZHLVHQ XQG :DKUQHKPXQJHQ ]X DFKWHQ %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6
$OWHUVELOGHU KDEHQ HLQH HQRUPH %HGHXWXQJ GDIU ZLH PLW bOWHUHQ XPJHJDQJHQ XQG
ZDV DOV ÄDOW³ DQJHVHKHQ ZLUG YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG
-XJHQG 6 I 6LHKW PDQ QXU *HEUHFKOLFKNHLW RGHU 3RWHQ]LDOH"
$OWHUVELOGHU ZHUGHQ PHLVW DXIJUXQG QRUPDWLYHU hEHU]HXJXQJHQ GLH VLFK DQ JHVHOOVFKDIW
OLFKHQ 9RUJDEHQ RULHQWLHUHQ XQG VHOEVWEH]RJHQHQ hEHU]HXJXQJHQ JHELOGHW GLH (UZDU
WXQJHQ XQG +RIIQXQJHQ DQ GDV HLJHQH $OWHU LQ GHQ 0LWWHOSXQNW UFNHQ 1RUPDWLY ZlUH
GHPQDFK GHU hEHUJDQJ LQ GHQ 5XKHVWDQG DOV $Q]HLJHU IU GDV $OWVHLQ RGHU DEHU DXFK W\
SLVFKH (LJHQVFKDIWHQ GLH PDQ PLW GHP $OWHU YHUELQGHW ZLH 6HQLOLWlW 9HUJHVVOLFKNHLW XQG
*HEUHFKOLFKNHLW 6XEMHNWLYH hEHU]HXJXQJHQ VLQG PLW GHQ QRUPDWLYHQ YHUEXQGHQ DEHU
DXFK PLW SHUV|QOLFKHQ (UIDKUXQJHQ 9JO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 I 9RUKHUUVFKHQ
GH $OWHUVELOGHU GLH IUKHU GXUFK 0lUFKHQ XQG 6DJHQ XQG KHXW]XWDJH YRUQHKPOLFK GXUFK
GLH 0HGLHQ VSH]LHOO GXUFK :HUEXQJ YHUEUHLWHW ZHUGHQ EHHLQÀXVVHQ GDV 6HOEVWELOG HLQHV
0HQVFKHQ 'DV $XVPD‰ GHU %HHLQÀXVVXQJ LVW MHGRFK DEKlQJLJ YRP EHUHLWV YRUKDQGH
QHQ 6HOEVWELOG 0HLVW ZHUGHQ GLH (OHPHQWH EHUQRPPHQ GLH DP HKHVWHQ ]XU HLJHQHQ
%HWUDFKWXQJVZHLVH SDVVHQ YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 9RU DOOHP %LOGHU GHV DO
WHUQGHQ .|USHUV ZHUGHQ PLW $OWHUVELOGHUQ YHUEXQGHQ GRFK DXFK GLH 6SUDFKH GLHQW DOV
7UDQVSRUWPLWWHO GHU $OWHUVELOGHU „In diesem Sinne sind Altersbilder verallgemeinernde
Aussagen über alte Menschen.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG
-XJHQG E 6 $OWHUVELOGHU QRUPDWLY RGHU VXEMHNWLY HQWVWHKHQ LQ *HVHOOVFKDIWHQ
EHU ODQJH =HLWUlXPH SDVVHQ VLFK PHKU RGHU ZHQLJHU VFKQHOO ZDQGHOQGHQ %HGLQJXQJHQ
63
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
DQ XQG GLIIHUHQ]LHUHQ VLFK YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG
-XJHQG E 6 II
/HW]WOLFK ELHWHW GLH KHXWLJH *HVHOOVFKDIW JH]HLFKQHW YRQ GHU ,QGLYLGXDOLVLHUXQJ ± GHU $XI
O|VXQJ WUDGLWLRQHOOHU %H]JH ± ]DKOUHLFKH *HVWDOWXQJVVSLHOUlXPH GLH DXFK PLW 8QVLFKHU
KHLWHQ HLQKHUJHKHQ 'LHVH Ä0XOWLRSWLRQVJHVHOOVFKDIW³ KDW DXI DOOH /HEHQVSKDVHQ (LQÀXVV
VR DXFK DXI GLH GHV Ä$OWHUV³ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )UDXHQ 6HQLRUHQ )DPLOLH XQG
-XJHQG E 6 „Noch dazu wissen die Menschen in der Multioptionsgesellschaft
um ihre Wahl-, Kombinations- und Aushandlungsmöglichkeiten. Sie prüfen ihre Optionen
selbstbewusst, fragen sich bis ins hohe Alter fortwährend: ‚Wie wollen wir leben?‘.“
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6 *UXQGVlW]OLFK VLQG GLH $OWHUVELOGHU LQ XQVHUHU *HVHOOVFKDIW HEHQVR YLHOVHLWLJ ZLH GLH /H
EHQVZHJH MHGHV (LQ]HOQHQ $OW VHLQ LVW QLFKW DXVVFKOLH‰OLFK JOHLFK]XVHW]HQ PLW SK\VLVFKHQ
XQG SV\FKLVFKHQ 'H¿]LWHQ 9LHOH $OWH VLQG ELV LQV KRKH $OWHU DNWLY ELOGHQ VLFK IRUWZlK
UHQG ZHLWHU ZLH GLH JHQDQQWHQ %HLVSLHOH bOWHUHU XQG +RFKDOWULJHU ]HLJHQ 3RVLWLYH $OWHUV
ELOGHU N|QQHQ GLH 3RWHQ]LDOH bOWHUHU YRU $XJHQ IKUHQ 'HQQRFK HQWVWHKHQ LP 5DKPHQ
GHU +RFKDOWULJNHLW XQG GDPLW YHUEXQGHQHU 0XOWLPRUELGLWlW DXFK QHJDWLYH $OWHUVELOGHU
GHUHQ 9HUDOOJHPHLQHUXQJ DXI DOOH $OWHQ XQG GDPLW 6WHUHRW\SLVLHUXQJ YROONRPPHQ IDOVFK
ZlUH ZLH GLH NRPPHQGHQ $XVIKUXQJHQ ]HLJHQ ZHUGHQ
$OWHU
.UDQNKHLW"
„Ein Neudenken des Alterns setzt voraus, dass das Alter als Teil des Lebens verstanden
wird, der nicht an eine Jahreszahl gebunden ist und keine allgemein gültigen Halbwertszeiten aufweist, sondern sich abhängig von der individuellen und gesellschaftlichen Situation in sehr differenzierten Ausprägungen darstellen kann.“ 'UX\HQ 6 'LH
JHZRQQHQHQ /HEHQVMDKUH GLH ]XPHLVW LQ JXWHU *HVXQGKHLW YHUEUDFKW ZHUGHQ PVVHQ YLHO
PHKU LQV %HZXVVWVHLQ GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW JHUFNW ZHUGHQ XQG QLFKW QXU GHU )DNW GDVV PLW
]XQHKPHQGHP $OWHU GLH .UDQNKHLWVZDKUVFKHLQOLFKNHLW VWHLJW 'DVV *HVXQGKHLWVSUREOHPH
LP $OWHU ]XQHKPHQ NDQQ QLFKW YRQ GHU +DQG JHZLHVHQ ZHUGHQ ± GHU 0HQVFKHQ
]ZLVFKHQ XQG -DKUHQ KDEHQ IQI RGHU PHKU .UDQNKHLWHQ YRU DOOHP .UDQNKHLWHQ GHV
+HU].UHLVODXIV\VWHPV GHV %HZHJXQJVDSSDUDWHV .UHEVHUNUDQNXQJHQ XQG QHXURGHJHQH
UDWLYH (UNUDQNXQJHQ VLQG LQ GHU $OWHUVJUXSSH EHU ZHLW YHUEUHLWHW DOOHUGLQJV KlQJW
GDV (UNUDQNHQ YRQ YLHOHQ YHUVFKLHGHQHQ )DNWRUHQ DE DXFK GHU LQGLYLGXHOOHQ /HEHQVZHL
VH RGHU GHP %LOGXQJVJUDG YJO 6D‰:XUP=LHVH 6 XQG XQG %XQGHVPLQLV
WHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG D 6 (UQlKUXQJ 6SRUW .RQVXP YRQ $ONRKRO RGHU 7DEDN XYP KDEHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GHQ
LQGLYLGXHOOHQ *HVXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG :LUG GHQ 0HQVFKHQ GLHVH 7DWVDFKH EHZXVVW JHPDFKW
VWHLJW GDV 9HUDQWZRUWXQJVEHZXVVWVHLQ IU GHQ HLJHQHQ .|USHU XQG ZHQLJHU .UDQNKHLWHQ
VLQG GLH )ROJH (UNHQQHQ 0HQVFKHQ GDVV VLH VHOEVW HWZDV EHLWUDJHQ N|QQHQ HUK|KW VLFK
DXFK GLH 1XW]XQJ YRQ 3UlYHQWLRQVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ZDV HLQHQ ]XVlW]OLFKHQ SRVLWLYHQ (IIHNW
64
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
DXI GHQ *HVXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG KDW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ
XQG -XJHQG D 6 II 3RVLWLYH $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ HUJHEHQ
VLFK LQ .RVWHQHLQVSDUXQJHQ DXIJUXQG ZHQLJHU DQJHZHQGHWHU 7KHUDSLHQ
(UUHLFKW ZLUG GDV %HZXVVWVHLQ GHU HLJHQHQ 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ IU GLH *HVXQGKHLW DXFK GD
GXUFK GDVV EHVWHKHQGH QHJDWLYH $OWHUVELOGHU KLQWHUIUDJW ZHUGHQ XQG LQGLYLGXHOOH (UIDK
UXQJHQ PHKU LQ GHQ )RNXV JHUDWHQ ÄbQJVWH YRU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW XQG 'HPHQ] DOV
mögliche Grenzsituationen des Alters) sind nicht zuletzt deswegen verbreitet, weil der
Verlust der Selbstständigkeit und gravierende Einbußen der kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit die Integrität und die Würde der Person infrage zu stellen scheinen.“ %XQGHVPLQLV
WHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6 5.4 Potenziale der „jungen Alten“
„Der demographische Wandel und die enorme Verlängerung der durchschnittlichen Lebenszeit dürfen nicht primär als Problem, sondern müssen als Gewinn gesehen werden.“
'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 „Wandel als Chance sehen! Eine große Chance für die entwickelten Länder, ihre GeVHOOVFKDIWHQ XP]XEDXHQ XP ÀH[LEOHU XQG JOFNOLFKHU ]X OHEHQ DOV ELVKHU³ 6FKZHQWNHU
9DXSHO 6 %HUHLWV GLH YRU -DKUHQ OHEHQGHQ &UR0DJQRQ0HQVFKHQ QXW]WHQ XQG VFKlW]WHQ GLH
)lKLJNHLWHQ GHU bOWHUHQ LKUHU *HPHLQVFKDIW :LVVHQ DOV ZHUWYROOVWH 5HVVRXUFH ZDU LKQHQ
HLJHQ XQG ZXUGH DQ QDFKIROJHQGH *HQHUDWLRQHQ ZHLWHUJHJHEHQ ,Q HLQHU =HLW RKQH %
FKHU RGHU JDU ,QWHUQHW ZDUHQ GLH $OWHQ HLQ 4XHOO GHV :LVVHQV (UP|JOLFKW QXU GXUFK GLH
N|USHUOLFKH *HEUHFKOLFKNHLW GLH PLW GHP $OWHUQ HLQKHUJHKW XQG -DJHQ XQP|JOLFK PDFKWH
YJO 6HLGO 6 I $OWHUVELOGHU HLQHU *HVHOOVFKDIW EHVWLPPHQ GLH 3RWHQ]LDOH DEHU
DXFK *UHQ]HQ GHV $OWHUV 'D ZLH EHUHLWV EHVFKULHEHQ KlX¿J (OHPHQWH GHU $OWHUVELOGHU LQ
GDV 6HOEVWELOG EHUQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ VLQG VLH YRQ HQRUPHU %HGHXWXQJ „Dies gilt für die
EHUXÀLFKH /HLVWXQJVIlKLJNHLW ZLH IU GDV EUJHUVFKDIWOLFKH (QJDJHPHQW IU GLH hEHUnahme von Verantwortung für die eigene Gesundheit wie für die Auseinandersetzung mit
.UDQNKHLWHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW RGHU 'HPHQ]³ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLR
UHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6 „Zu den Potenzialen im Alter gehören neben materiellen Ressourcen insbesondere Gesundheit, Leistungsfähigkeit, Lernfähigkeit, Interesse, Zeit, Erfahrungen und Wissen.“
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 I :LH HLQL
JH GLHVHU 3RWHQ]LDOH ]LHOEULQJHQG JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ VROO DQVFKOLH‰HQG EHVFKULHEHQ
ZHUGHQ
65
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
3RWHQ]LDO EUJHUOLFKHV (QJDJHPHQW
'LH %HUHLWVFKDIW bOWHUHU VLFK HKUHQDPWOLFK ]X HQJDJLHUHQ QLPPW VHLW -DKUHQ ]X ± YRU
DOOHP EHL GHQ ÄMXQJHQ $OWHQ³ ZREHL VLH ]DKOUHLFKH $NWLYLWlWVIHOGHU IU VLFK HQWGHFNW
KDEHQ 9HUHLQV RGHU .LUFKHQDUEHLW 8QWHUVWW]XQJ YRQ )UHXQGHQ XQG )DPLOLH RGHU GLH
3ROLWLN &LUFD HLQ 'ULWWHO GHU ELV -lKULJHQ XQG HLQ )QIWHO GHU ELV -lKUL
JHQ HQJDJLHUHQ VLFK EHUHLWV ZREHL HLQ SRVLWLYHU =XVDPPHQKDQJ ]ZLVFKHQ %LOGXQJV XQG
%HUXIVVWDWXV XQG HKUHQDPWOLFKHU 7lWLJNHLW EHVWHKW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH
6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 II 'HU $OWHQEHULFKW GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ
EHVFKUHLEW GUHL 7HQGHQ]HQ EHL GHU (QWZLFNOXQJ GHV EUJHUOLFKHQ (QJDJHPHQWV bOWHUHU
VLH HQJDJLHUHQ VLFK QLFKW PHKU QXU LQ 9HUHLQHQ VRQGHUQ DXFK LQ GHQ %HUHLFKHQ .LQGHU
JDUWHQ 6FKXOH .XOWXU RGHU gNRORJLH 3OXUDOLVLHUXQJ 7UDGLWLRQHOOH %H]JH HQWVFKHLGHQ
QLFKW PHKU GDUEHU LQ ZHOFKHP %HUHLFK VLFK bOWHUH HQJDJLHUHQ ,QGLYLGXDOLVLHUXQJ XQG
QLFKW QXU DOWUXLVWLVFKH 0RWLYH VWHKHQ LP 0LWWHOSXQNW VRQGHUQ DXFK 6SD‰ XQG GLH 0|J
OLFKNHLW ]XU 6HOEVWYHUZLUNOLFKXQJ 0RWLYZDQGHO YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH
6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 I
'DV 3URJUDPP Ä$NWLY LP $OWHU³ ZHOFKHV LQ .RPPXQHQ 'HXWVFKODQGV GXUFKJHIKUW
ZXUGH IKUWH ]XU 8PVHW]XQJ YRQ 3URMHNWHQ LQ GHQHQ bOWHUH VLFK IU LKUH .RPPXQH HLQ
EULQJHQ NRQQWHQ
bOWHUH VFKlW]HQ GLH 9RUWHLOH GLH VLFK DXV HLQHU HKUHQDPWOLFKHQ %HWlWLJXQJ HUJHEHQ VHKU
'D]X JHK|UHQ VR]LDOH ,QWHJUDWLRQ XQG GDV JXWH *HIKO HLQH VLQQYROOH 7lWLJNHLW DXV]X
EHQ LQWHUJHQHUDWLYH .RQWDNWH XQG 8QWHUVWW]XQJ VR]LDOHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ ,Q %H]XJ DXI
GDV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ VWHOOHQ HKUHQDPWOLFKH 8QWHUVWW]XQJVOHLVWXQJHQ LP %HUHLFK GHU
3ÀHJH HLQHQ ZLFKWLJHQ JHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHQ %HLWUDJ GDU 'DV .DSLWHO EHVFKUHLEW X D
ZLH EUJHUOLFKHV (QJDJHPHQW bOWHUHU LP %HUHLFK GHU 3ÀHJH JHI|UGHUW ZHUGHQ NDQQ
3RWHQ]LDO $UEHLWVPDUNW
Ä$XI GDV 3RWHQ]LDO GHU bOWHUHQ NDQQ GLH GHXWVFKH :LUWVFKDIW DQJHVLFKWV GHV GHPRJUD¿schen Wandels nicht länger verzichten.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 (LJHQVFKDIWHQ ZLH :LVVHQ (UIDKUXQJ $UEHLWVPRUDO 0RWLYDWLRQ 4XDOLWlWVRULHQWLHUXQJ
=XYHUOlVVLJNHLW /R\DOLWlW )KUXQJVIlKLJNHLW XQG VR]LDOH .RPSHWHQ] N|QQHQ YRU DOOHP
lOWHUHQ $UEHLWQHKPHUQ ]XJHVFKULHEHQ ZHUGHQ XQG VROOWHQ GXUFK HLQHQ IUKHQ 5XKHVWDQG
QLFKW HLQIDFK DXIJHJHEHQ ZHUGHQ (LQ OlQJHUHV 9HUEOHLEHQ LQ GHU (UZHUEVWlWLJNHLW HQWODV
WHW GLH 6R]LDONDVVHQ XQG HUP|JOLFKW HV lOWHUHQ $UEHLWQHKPHUQ VLFK ZHLWHU EHU LKUH $UEHLW
]X GH¿QLHUHQ XQG :HUWVFKlW]XQJ ]X HUIDKUHQ 'LH KRKH $UEHLWVORVLJNHLW XQG GLH RIW IHK
OHQGHQ DOWHUVJHUHFKWHQ $UEHLWVSOlW]H YHUKLQGHUQ MHGRFK RIW HLQH %HVFKlIWLJXQJ bOWHUHU
,KU $QWHLO DQ GHQ $UEHLWVORVHQ LVW K|KHU DOV YHUJOHLFKEDUHU -DKUJlQJH YJO %XQGHVPLQLV
WHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 I $UEHLWQHKPHU VWHOOHQ VLFK
KHXWH PHKU GHQQ MH GDUDXI HLQ OlQJHU ]X DUEHLWHQ XQG QLFKW IUKHU LQ GHQ 9RUUXKHVWDQG ]X
66
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
JHKHQ *UQGH IU HLQH ZHLWHUKLQ VWDWW¿QGHQ ZHUGHQGH )UKYHUUHQWXQJ VLQG X D
‡
‡
$UEHLW VWHOOW IU YLHOH QLFKW GLH (UIOOXQJ LKUHV /HEHQV GDU GDKHU ZROOHQ 6LH IUKHU
LKUH )UHL]HLW JHQLH‰HQ XQG VLFK QLFKW GHQ =ZlQJHQ GHV $UEHLWVPDUNWHV XQWHUZHUIHQ
)LQDQ]LHOOH $EVLFKHUXQJ HUP|JOLFKW HLQ IUKHUHV $XVVFKHLGHQ DXV GHP %HUXI DXFK
GXUFK (UK|KXQJ GHU )UDXHQHUZHUEVTXRWH =ZHL 9HUGLHQHU EHGHXWHW PHKU *HOG YJO
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 I
$XIJUXQG GHU =XQDKPH N|USHUOLFKHU *HEUHFKOLFKNHLWHQ LP $OWHU ZHUGHQ HLQLJH 0HQ
VFKHQ YRU DOOHP N|USHUOLFK VFKZHU DUEHLWHQGH QLFKW ELV ]XP JHVHW]OLFKHQ 5HQWHQDOWHU DU
EHLWHQ N|QQHQ 7ULWW PDQ YRU]HLWLJ LQ GHQ 5XKHVWDQG HLQ LVW PLW $E]JHQ ]X UHFKQHQ $XI
GLHVHP :HJH VROO YHUVXFKW ZHUGHQ HLQH )UKYHUUHQWXQJ XQDWWUDNWLY ]X PDFKHQ 3HUVR
QHQ GLH JHQJHQG ¿QDQ]LHOOH 5HVHUYHQ KDEHQ ZHUGHQ VLFK GDYRQ MHGRFK QLFKW DEKDOWHQ
ODVVHQ IUKHU LQ 5HQWH ]X JHKHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ
XQG -XJHQG 6 $XFK ZHQQ GDV 5HQWHQDOWHU HUK|KW ZXUGH KHL‰W GDV QLFKW GDVV
PHKU bOWHUH EHVFKlIWLJW VHLQ ZHUGHQ 6RODQJH GLH 8QWHUQHKPHQ lOWHUHQ $UEHLWQHKPHUQ
NHLQH $UEHLWVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ DQELHWHQ EOHLEW GLH $UEHLWVORVLJNHLW LQ GHU 3HUVRQHQJUXSSH
EHUSURSRUWLRQDO KRFK „Andererseits wird durch die Senkung des Rentenniveaus der
.UHLV GHU 3HUVRQHQ JU|‰HU GLH DXV ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ *UQGHQ OlQJHU DUEHLWHQ PVVHQ³ %XQ
GHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 'LH DXV /DQJ
]HLWDUEHLWVORVLJNHLW UHVXOWLHUHQGHQ 5HQWHQ GLH HLQ /HEHQ DP ([LVWHQ]PLQLPXP EHGHXWHQ
JHEHQ GHP 7KHPD GHU $OWHUVDUPXW QHXH %ULVDQ] ,VW HLQH $QKHEXQJ GHV 5HQWHQDOWHUV EHL
IHKOHQGHQ $UEHLWVSOlW]HQ IU bOWHUH ]X UHFKWIHUWLJHQ"
:LFKWLJ IU GLH %HVFKlIWLJXQJ bOWHUHU LVW HV GLH $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ EHGDUIVJHUHFKW DQ
]XSDVVHQ +LHU]X H[LVWLHUHQ YHUVFKLHGHQH )|UGHU XQG 0RGHOOSURJUDPPH13 GLH %HWULH
EH DXI LKUH 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ DXIPHUNVDP PDFKHQ XQG EHL GHU 8PVHW]XQJ HQWVSUHFKHQGHU
0D‰QDKPHQ XQWHUVWW]HQ ZROOHQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ ZLH )DKULRQ RGHU GLH 'DLPOHU%HQ] $*
VLQG 9RUUHLWHU GHU GHPRJUD¿HRULHQWLHUWHQ 3HUVRQDOSODQXQJ XQG %HVFKlIWLJXQJVSROLWLN
YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 'HQ
QRFK VLQG GLH PHLVWHQ %HWULHEH QLFKW DXI lOWHU ZHUGHQGH $UEHLWQHKPHU HLQJHVWHOOW ± KLHU
EHVWHKW DNXWHU +DQGOXQJVEHGDUI 0D‰QDKPHQ XQG +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ ZHUGHQ LQ
.DSLWHO EHVFKULHEHQ
3RWHQ]LDO .RQVXPPDUNW
'LH %HGHXWXQJ YRQ bOWHUHQ DOV .RQVXPHQWHQ LVW HQRUP 'HQQRFK VWHFNW GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ
YRQ VSH]LHOOHQ $QJHERWHQ IU 6HQLRUHQ ELVODQJ QRFK LQ GHQ .LQGHUVFKXKHQ 'DEHL ZLUG
NQIWLJ GLH 1DFKIUDJH QDFK 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ YRU DOOHP LP *HVXQGKHLWVVHNWRU VWHLJHQ
,QVEHVRQGHUH 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ LP 5DKPHQ YRQ +DXVKDOWVKLOIHQ RGHU LP 3ÀHJHEHUHLFK
ZHUGHQ NQIWLJ PHKU QDFKJHIUDJW ZHUGHQ DXIJUXQG GHU YHUlQGHUWHQ )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ
ZXUGH GLH ,QLWLDWLYH Ä1HXH 4XDOLWlW GHU $UEHLW ,14$ LQV /HEHQ JHUXIHQ GLH DXI GLH 0RGHUQLVLH
UXQJ GHU $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ XQG )|UGHUXQJ GHU *HVXQGKHLW DE]LHOW
67
([NXUV $OWHU DOV &KDQFH
'LHV ]HLJW VLFK EHUHLWV MHW]W ZHQQ GDV $XVJDEHQPXVWHU bOWHUHU EHWUDFKWHW ZLUG *WHU GHU
*HVXQGKHLWVSÀHJH ZHUGHQ EHUHLWV KHXWH KlX¿J NRQVXPLHUW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU
)DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 „Wie sich allerdings die Gesamtnachfrage Älterer nach Gesundheitsleistungen absolut und relativ entwickeln wird, hängt
XD PD‰JHEOLFK DXFK GDYRQ DE LQ ZHOFKHP 8PIDQJ ]% EHL .UDQNKHLW XQG 3ÀHJHEHGUItigkeit zusätzliche Ausgaben privat getragen werden müssen – z.B. in Form von ZuzahOXQJHQ RGHU ]XU )LQDQ]LHUXQJ QLFKW PHKU LP /HLVWXQJVNDWDORJ GHU .UDQNHQ RGHU 3ÀHgeversicherung enthaltener Leistungen oder infolge eines gesenkten Leistungsniveaus.“
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 'LH *HVXQGKHLWV XQG 7RXULVPXVEUDFKH VROOWH GDV 3RWHQ]LDO lOWHUHU .RQVXPHQWHQ HUNHQ
QHQ XQG YHUVWlUNW $QJHERWH IU 6HQLRUHQ EHUHLWKDOWHQ 'D]X JHK|UHQ EHLVSLHOVZHLVH 5HL
VHQ IU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH XQG GHUHQ 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ$QJHK|ULJH
68
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
6HLW FD ]HKQ -DKUHQ ZLUG GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO |IIHQWOLFK GLVNXWLHUW XQG DXI VHLQH
SURJQRVWL]LHUWHQ XQG EHUHLWV HLQWUHIIHQGHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ IU GLH *HVHOOVFKDIW GLH :LUW
VFKDIW XQG GLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH UHDJLHUW =XYRU ZXUGHQ +LQZHLVH DXI GLH SUREOHPDWLVFKHQ
$XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV LJQRULHUW RGHU JDU LQ )UDJH JHVWHOOW 'LHV
lQGHUWH VLFK UDVDQW XQG GLH ,QLWLLHUXQJ GLYHUVHU 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ XQG 5DKPHQSURJUDPPH
EHZHLVW GDVV HLQ 8PGHQNHQ VWDWWJHIXQGHQ XQG HLQ +DQGOXQJVEHZXVVWVHLQ HLQJHVHW]W KDW
'DV IROJHQGH .DSLWHO EHVFKUHLEW LP HUVWHQ 7HLO HLQH $XVZDKO GHU YRQ GHU %XQGHVUHJLH
UXQJ LQLWLLHUWHQ 5DKPHQSURJUDPPH XQG 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ ]XP GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO
JHKW GDQQ LP ]ZHLWHQ 7HLO DXI 0D‰QDKPHQ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN HLQ XQG HUOlXWHUW LP
GULWWHQ 7HLO ZHLWHUH 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ GLH DXI ,QLWLDWLYH GLYHUVHU $NWHXUH HQWVWDQGHQ VLQG
0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ XQG 5DKPHQSURJUDPPH GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ
'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH XQG 'HPRJUD¿HEHULFKW GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ
,P 1RYHPEHU KDW GLH %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ HLQHU 'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH
ZHOFKH GLH GHPRJUD¿VFKH /DJH 'HXWVFKODQGV HUIDVVHQ XQG GLH GDUDXV DEOHLWEDUH NQIWLJH
(QWZLFNOXQJ DQDO\VLHUHQ VROO EHVFKORVVHQ 'HU JHQDXH $XIWUDJ ODXWHW
Ä'HU %XQGHVPLQLVWHU GHV ,QQHUQ ZLUG EHDXIWUDJW HLQHQ LQWHUPLQLVWHULHOOHQ $XVVFKXVV Ã'HPRJUD¿Hµ
]XU .RRUGLQLHUXQJ YRQ 3URJUDPPHQ XQG ,QLWLDWLYHQ GHU 5HVVRUWV ]XU *HVWDOWXQJ GHV 'HPRJUD¿schen Wandels auf Staatssekretärs-Ebene einzuberufen und federführend dem Kabinett bis zum Jahr
HLQHQ Ã%HULFKW GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ ]XU GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ /DJH XQG NQIWLJHQ (QWZLFNOXQJ GHV
Landes‘ vorzulegen. Der Bundesminister des Innern wird ferner beauftragt, dem Kabinett hierauf
DXIEDXHQG ELV ]XP -DKUH HLQHQ 9RUVFKODJ IU HLQH UHVVRUWEHUJUHLIHQGH Ã'HPRJUD¿H6WUDWHJLH
der Bundesregierung‘ vorzulegen.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'HU 'HPRJUD¿HEHULFKW HUVFKLHQ LP 2NWREHU XQG EHVFKUHLEW GLH GHPRJUD¿VFKH (QW
ZLFNOXQJ 'HXWVFKODQGV VRZLH GLH YRQ GHU 5HJLHUXQJ HUJULIIHQHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ (V ZLUG
HEHQVR GHU ZHLWHUH +DQGOXQJVEHGDUI EHVFKULHEHQ 'LHVHU EHVWHKW LQVEHVRQGHUH LP %H
UHLFK GHU )DPLOLHQ =XZDQGHUXQJV $UEHLWVPDUNW XQG %LOGXQJVSROLWLN GHU $OWHUVVLFKH
UXQJ GHP *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP GHU 5DXPHQWZLFNOXQJ XQG EHL GHQ |IIHQWOLFKHQ )LQDQ]HQ
)DPLOLHQSROLWLVFKH (QWVFKHLGXQJHQ ] % GLH =DKOXQJ YRQ .LQGHUJHOG XQG GLH (UP|JOL
FKXQJ YRQ (U]LHKXQJV]HLWHQ XQWHUVWW]HQ )DPLOLHQ XQG VROOHQ HLQHQ SRVLWLYHQ (IIHNW DXI
GLH )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ KDEHQ (V JHKW GHPQDFK GDUXP )DPLOLHQ ¿QDQ]LHOO DE]XVLFKHUQ
GLH 9HUHLQEDUNHLW YRQ %HUXI XQG )DPLOLH ]X HUOHLFKWHUQ XQG .LQGHUZQVFKH ]X XQWHUVWW
]HQ +LHU]X ]lKOW X D GLH %HUHLWVWHOOXQJ YRQ DXVUHLFKHQG %HWUHXXQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ IU
.LQGHU YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 69
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
(LQH JH]LHOWH =XZDQGHUXQJVSROLWLN VROO (QJSlVVH DXI GHP $UEHLWVPDUNW YRU DOOHP LP
%HUHLFK GHV )DFKNUlIWHPDQJHOV DXVJOHLFKHQ
'LH $UEHLWVPDUNWSROLWLN VROO GDUDXI DE]LHOHQ GLH (UZHUEVEHWHLOLJXQJ YRQ )UDXHQ XQG lO
WHUHQ 0LWEUJHUQ ]X I|UGHUQ DEHU DXFK GLH $UEHLWVSODW]JHVWDOWXQJ DQ KHXWLJH %HGDUIH
DQ]XSDVVHQ 'D]X JHK|UW GLH ,PSOHPHQWLHUXQJ EHWULHEOLFKHU *HVXQGKHLWVI|UGHUXQJVPD‰
QDKPHQ
'LH %LOGXQJVSROLWLN ]LHOW DXI (UK|KXQJ GHV %LOGXQJVQLYHDXV ± EHJRQQHQ EHL GHU IUK
NLQGOLFKHQ EHU GLH VFKXOLVFKH ELV ]XU $XV XQG :HLWHUELOGXQJ
'XUFK GLH $OWHUVVLFKHUXQJ VROO GDV (LQNRPPHQ QDFK GHP $XVVFKHLGHQ DXV GHP (UZHUEV
OHEHQ JHVLFKHUW ZHUGHQ (LQ DQJHPHVVHQHU /HEHQVVWDQGDUG XQG GLH 7HLOKDEH DP JHVHOO
VFKDIWOLFKHQ /HEHQ VROO JHZlKUOHLVWHW ZHUGHQ 'DPLW DXFK LQ =HLWHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHOV GLH )LQDQ]LHUXQJ JHVLFKHUW ZLUG ZXUGHQ $QSDVVXQJHQ YRUJHQRPPHQ ZLH GLH
VFKULWWZHLVH (UK|KXQJ GHV 5HQWHQHLQWULWWDOWHUV XQG GLH (LQIKUXQJ YRQ $EVFKOlJHQ DXI
GLH 5HQWHQK|KH ZHQQ GLH 5HQWH YRU GHP JHVHW]OLFKHQ 5HQWHQDOWHU LQ $QVSUXFK JHQRP
PHQ ZLUG YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'DV 5HQWHQYHUVLFKHUXQJV
1DFKKDOWLJNHLWVJHVHW] DXV GHP -DKU IKUWH ]X HLQHU (UZHLWHUXQJ GHU 5HQWHQIRUPHO
XP GHQ 1DFKKDOWLJNHLWVIDNWRU „[…], der Veränderungen im Verhältnis von Leistungsbeziehern und Beitragszahlern berücksichtigt.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6
=LHO GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN LVW HLQH ZHLWHUKLQ XQDEKlQJLJ YRP (LQNRPPHQ JHVL
FKHUWH PHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ DXI KRKHP 1LYHDX VRZLH GLH DQJHPHVVHQH 9HUVRUJXQJ
3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU *HVHW]H GLHVEH]JOLFK ZHUGHQ LP IROJHQGHQ 8QWHUNDSLWHO EHKDQGHOW
'HU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO KDW PD‰JHEOLFKH $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ YRQ 5H
JLRQHQ :VWXQJHQ ± GDV 6WHUEHQ YRQ '|UIHUQ XQG 6WlGWHQ ± ]lKOHQ ]X HLQHU GHU GUDV
WLVFKVWHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ ± XQG VLQG PHLVW EHU -DKUH-DKU]HKQWH DQKDOWHQGH 3UR]HVVH
8QWHUVWW]HQGH 0D‰QDKPHQ ± ]XP (UKDOW GHU /HEHQVTXDOLWlW ]XU 6WDELOLVLHUXQJ XQG 6L
FKHUXQJ GHU 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH ± N|QQHQ NOHLQUlXPLJ QLFKW JHO|VW XQG ODQJIULVWLJ QXU GXUFK
GLH =XVDPPHQDUEHLW YRQ %XQG XQG /lQGHUQ JHOLQJHQ 8P EHVRQGHUV EHWURIIHQH 5HJLRQHQ
]X XQWHUVWW]HQ ZHUGHQ ]ZHL $UWHQ YRQ 6WUDWHJLHQ YHUIROJW GLH 9HUPHLGXQJVVWUDWHJLHQ
XQG GLH $QSDVVXQJVVWUDWHJLHQ 'D PDQ VLFK LQ EHWURIIHQHQ 5HJLRQHQ SROLWLVFK ODQJH QLFKW
GHP )DNW GHU GDXHUKDIWHQ $EZDQGHUXQJ XQG GHQ )ROJHQ GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ (QWZLFN
OXQJ VWHOOHQ ZROOWH NDPHQ PHLVW 9HUPHLGXQJVVWUDWHJLHQ ] % GXUFK GLH $XVZHLVXQJ YRQ
*HZHUEHJHELHWHQ XQG GLYHUVH 3URMHNWH XQG )|UGHUSURJUDPPH GLH GLH :LUWVFKDIWVNUDIW
OlQGOLFKHU 5HJLRQHQ I|UGHUQ VROOWHQ ]XP (LQVDW] 'D VLFK DEHU GLH |IIHQWOLFKHQ )LQDQ]HQ
QHXHQ +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ VWHOOHQ PVVHQ ] % DXIJUXQG GHV 5FNJDQJV GHU 3HUVRQHQ LP
HUZHUEVIlKLJHQ $OWHU ZHUGHQ LQ]ZLVFKHQ DXFK YHUPHKUW $QSDVVXQJVVWUDWHJLHQ YHUIROJW
$UEHLWVNUDIW ± LQ MHGHP $OWHU ± LVW HLQ ZHVHQWOLFKHU )DNWRU GHV :LUWVFKDIWVZDFKVWXPV 8P
GLH |IIHQWOLFKHQ )LQDQ]HQ ]X VWDELOLVLHUHQ ZXUGHQ X D 5HIRUPHQ LP 6\VWHP GHU VR]LDOHQ
6LFKHUXQJ XQG )|UGHUXQJ GHU (UZHUEVEHWHLOLJXQJ XQWHUQRPPHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHUL
XP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 I
bKQOLFKHQ =LHOVHW]XQJHQ IROJW DXFK GLH LP $SULO YHU|IIHQWOLFKWH 'HPRJUD¿HVWUD
WHJLH Ä-HGHV $OWHU ]lKOW ³ +LHULQ ZHUGHQ +DQGOXQJVIHOGHU EHQDQQW XQG HV ZLUG SURNOD
70
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
PLHUW GDVV QRWZHQGLJH 5DKPHQEHGLQJXQJHQ GLH ]XU LQGLYLGXHOOHQ /HEHQVJHVWDOWXQJ
HUIRUGHUOLFK VLQG JHVFKDIIHQ ZHUGHQ (LQ %HLVSLHO GLH )DPLOLH DOV *HPHLQVFKDIW VROO
X D GDGXUFK JHI|UGHUW ZHUGHQ GDVV GLH (QWVFKHLGXQJ IU .LQGHU XQWHUVWW]W ZLUG 'LHV
VROO GXUFK GHQ $XVEDX DQ %HWUHXXQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ± DXFK GXUFK 4XDOL¿]LHUXQJ YRQ
7DJHVSÀHJHSHUVRQHQ GHU 9HUHLQEDUNHLW YRQ $XVELOGXQJ%HUXI XQG )DPLOLH ± GXUFK ID
PLOLHQEHZXVVWH $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ XQG GHU 8QWHUVWW]XQJ XQJHZROOW NLQGHUORVHU 3DDUH
JHVFKHKHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 II 8QNODU EOHLEW ZLH JHQDX
GLHVH =LHOH HUUHLFKW ZHUGHQ VROOHQ (V ZLUG JHSUIW XQG DXVJHORWHW DEHU RE DP (QGH
GDEHL ZLUNOLFK IU GLH )DPLOLHQ HLQH PHVVEDUH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ KHUDXV NRPPW ZLUG QLFKW
YHUELQGOLFK JHlX‰HUW
$XFK GHU 'HPRJUD¿HEHULFKW EHVFKUlQNW VLFK DXI HLQH %HVFKUHLEXQJ GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
6LWXDWLRQ 'HXWVFKODQGV XQG GDUDXV UHVXOWLHUHQGHQ $QIRUGHUXQJHQ DQ GLH 3ROLWLN ,Q GHQ
HLQ]HOQHQ %HUHLFKHQ ZLUG EHVFKULHEHQ ZHOFKH 0D‰QDKPHQ ± KlX¿J VLQG HV 3URMHNWH XQG
)|UGHUSURJUDPPH GLH LQLWLLHUW ZHUGHQ ± HUJULIIHQ ZHUGHQ XQG ZDV IU =LHOH GDPLW YHUIROJW
ZHUGHQ (V ZLUG MHGRFK QLFKW GDUDXI HLQJHJDQJHQ ZLH QDFKKDOWLJ GLHVH 3URMHNWH VLQG RGHU
ZDV GXUFK VLH HUUHLFKW ZXUGH .RQQWH GXUFK 3URJUDPPH ]XU )|UGHUXQJ GHU 9HUHLQEDUNHLW
YRQ %HUXI XQG )DPLOLH WDWVlFKOLFK GLH )UDXHQHUZHUEVTXRWH HUK|KW ZHUGHQ" ,VW GXUFK ID
PLOLHQSROLWLVFKH 0D‰QDKPHQ ZLH .LQGHUJHOG RGHU GHU (U]LHKXQJV]HLW HLQH (UK|KXQJ GHU
*HEXUWHQ]DKO IHVW]XVWHOOHQ" %HHLQÀXVVHQ GLH 3URJUDPPH ]XU SRVLWLYHQ %HVHW]XQJ GHV
$OWHUV ] % Ä(UIDKUXQJ LVW =XNXQIW³ ZLUNOLFK GLH 6LFKWZHLVH DXI GLHVH /HEHQVSKDVH"
)UDJHQ GHUHQ %HDQWZRUWXQJ QDFK $QVLFKW GHU 9HUIDVVHULQ YRQ %HGHXWXQJ ZlUH
'DUEHU KLQDXV IKUHQ SROLWLVFKH (QWVFKHLGXQJHQ ZLH GLH $QKHEXQJ GHU 5HQWHQDOWHUV
JUHQ]H RKQH ZHLWHUH EHJOHLWHQGH 0D‰QDKPHQ QLFKW ]X GHQ JHZQVFKWHQ ± PDQFKPDO
JHQDX ]X GHQ XPJHNHKUWHQ (IIHNWHQ VLHKH $OWHUVDUEHLWVORVLJNHLW ± $OWHUVDUPXW 'DV
EHGHXWHW ZHQQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ NHLQH 0|JOLFKNHLWHQ KDEHQ bOWHUH ]X EHVFKlIWLJHQ RGHU
VLH QLFKW EHVFKlIWLJHQ ZROOHQ N|QQHQ GLHVH QLFKW ELV DUEHLWHQ XQG HUKDOWHQ GXUFK GLH
IHKOHQGHQ %HLWUDJVMDKUH HLQH GHXWOLFK YHUPLQGHUWH 5HQWH
5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH
'DV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ Ä'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO 5HJLRQ VFKDIIW =XNXQIW³ ZHOFKHV YRP
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU 9HUNHKU %DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ %09%6 LQLWLLHUW ZXUGH XQ
WHUVWW]WH YRQ ELV (QGH 6WlGWH XQG *HPHLQGHQ EHL GHU DNWLYHQ *HVWDOWXQJ GHV
GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV YJO KWWSZZZUHJLRQVFKDIIW]XNXQIWGHFOQB'(+RPH
KRPHSDJHBBQRGHKWPO"BBQQQ WUXH 'LH (UJHEQLVVH GLHVHV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQV JLQJHQ LQ
HLQ ZHLWHUHV $NWLRQVSURJUDPP GHV %09%6 HLQ GHU Ä5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRU
JH³ ZHOFKHV DOV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ GHU 5DXPRUGQXQJ 0252 GXUFKJHIKUW ZLUG 0RGHOO
UHJLRQHQ LQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5lXPHQ ZHUGHQ LQ GHU (UVWHOOXQJ HLQHU 5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQV
YRUVRUJH XQWHUVWW]W (V VROOHQ 'LVNXVVLRQVSUR]HVVH HLQJHOHLWHW ZHUGHQ GLH *HPHLQGHQ
XQG 6WlGWH DQUHJHQ VROOHQ VLFK PLW GHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXV
HLQDQGHU]XVHW]HQ XQG $QSDVVXQJVVWUDWHJLHQ ]X HQWZLFNHOQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU
71
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
9HUNHKU %DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ 6 9RU DOOHP GLH VR]LDOHQ 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ
.XOWXUDQJHERWH *HVXQGKHLWVOHLVWXQJHQ .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJ 6FKXODXVELOGXQJ XQG $OWHQ
SÀHJH VLQG KLHU YRQ %HGHXWXQJ ,Q GHU 9HU|IIHQWOLFKXQJ GHV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXPV IU 9HU
NHKU %DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ Ä5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH 'HQNDQVW|‰H IU
GLH 3UD[LV³ ZHUGHQ +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ XQG 3UD[LVEHLVSLHOH YHU|IIHQWOLFKW 9RQ GHU
3UREOHPDQDO\VH ]XU =LHOIRUPXOLHUXQJ ELV ]XU 'H¿QLWLRQ YRQ +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
ZLUG DQKDQG DXVJHZlKOWHU 0RGHOOUHJLRQHQ EHVFKULHEHQ ZLH GLHVH GHQ EHVRQGHUHQ +HU
DXVIRUGHUXQJHQ EHJHJQHW VLQG
=X GHQ 0RGHOOUHJLRQHQ ]lKOWH DXFK GLH 5HJLRQ 6WHWWLQHU +DII GLH LQ VHFKV +DQGOXQJV
IHOGHUQ PHKU DOV 3URMHNWH GXUFKIKUWH ,P 5DKPHQ GHV +DQGOXQJVIHOGHV Ä6R]LDOH 'D
VHLQVYRUVRUJH XQG )DPLOLHQIUHXQGOLFKNHLW³ ZXUGHQ X D GLH 3URMHNWH Ä-XQJH $OWH LQ GHU
0LWWH GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW³ XQG Ä$QJHERWH LP 9RUIHOG GHU /HLVWXQJHQ YRQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ³
XPJHVHW]W GLH IU GLHVH $UEHLW QlKHU EHWUDFKWHW ZHUGHQ VROOHQ 'DV 3URMHNW Ä$QJHERWH
LP 9RUIHOG GHU /HLVWXQJHQ YRQ 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ³ YHUIROJWH GDV =LHO QLHGULJVFKZHOOLJH SUR
IHVVLRQHOOH XQG HKUHQDPWOLFKH $QJHERWH XQG 6WUXNWXUHQ ]X HWDEOLHUHQ XQG PLWHLQDQGHU
]X YHUQHW]HQ :HLWHUKLQ ZXUGH HLQ :HJZHLVHU DXI GHQ :HJ JHEUDFKW XP %HWURIIHQH XQG
$QJHK|ULJH XQG GLH UHJLRQDOH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ GXUFK GLIIHUHQ]LHUWH 3URJQRVHGDWHQ ]XU
3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW LQ ]X 2VWYRUSRPPHUQ XQWHUVWW]HQ 'DUEHU KLQDXV VROOHQ MlKUOLFKH
6HQLRUHQNRQIHUHQ]HQ RUJDQLVLHUW ZHUGHQ GLH VLFK DOV =LHO GLH 9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU 6LWXDWLRQ
bOWHUHU JHVHW]W KDEHQ 'LH )ROJHSURMHNWH Ä0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ .UHLVSÀHJHSODQ³ XQG Ä+DQG
OXQJVOHLWIDGHQ ]XU 9HUVRUJXQJ YRQ 'HPHQ]HUNUDQNWHQ³ VLQG HEHQIDOOV (UJHEQLV GLHVHV
3UR]HVVHV 1HEHQ GHU 'XUFKIKUXQJ HLQHV UHJLRQDOHQ *HVXQGKHLWV XQG 3ÀHJHNRQJUHVVHV
XQG GHU *UQGXQJ YRQ $UEHLWVJUXSSHQ LVW |IIHQWOLFK QLFKWV EHU GHUHQ (UJHEQLVVH EH
NDQQW hEHU GDV 3URMHNW Ä-XQJH $OWH LQ GHU 0LWWH GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW³ NRQQWH VLFK OHGLJOLFK
HLQ PRQDWOLFKHU Ä(U]lKOVDORQ³ HWDEOLHUHQ 9JO KWWSZZZUHJLRQVFKDIIW]XNXQIWGH
FOQBQQB'(3URMHNWH6WHWWLQHU+DII6R]LDOH'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH)DPLOLH-XQJH$O
WHSURMHNWKWPO
'LH (UJHEQLVVH GHV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQV „'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO ± 5HJLRQ VFKDIIW =X
NXQIW³ LQ GHQ $OWNUHLVHQ 8HFNHU5DQGRZ XQG 2VWYRUSRPPHUQ VROOHQ LQ GHU Ä5HJLRQDOHQ
(QWZLFNOXQJV XQG 6WDELOLVLHUXQJVLQLWLDWLYH 5(6,³ YHUWLHIW XQG ZHLWHUHQWZLFNHOW ZHU
GHQ /HW]WHUH VHW]W VLFK XQWHU DQGHUHP GLH $XIJDEH HLQH Ä$JHQWXU IU =LYLOJHVHOOVFKDIW
OLFKHV (QJDJHPHQW XQG %UJHUEHWHLOLJXQJ $=(%³ DXI]XEDXHQ =LHOH VLQG GHU $XIEDX
EUJHUVFKDIWOLFKHU 1HW]ZHUNH XQG )|UGHUXQJ ]LYLOJHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHQ (QJDJHPHQWV ]XU
(QWZLFNOXQJ GHU *HPHLQGHQ XQG 6WlGWH $XFK GLH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ EHVWHKHQGHU 3URMHNWH
XQG 3URJUDPPH ZLH GDV GHU PXOWLSOHQ +lXVHU VLHKH ([NXUV 0XOWLSOH +lXVHU ]lKOW ]XP
$XIJDEHQVSHNWUXP $OV 7UlJHU YRUJHVHKHQ VLQG GLH +RFKVFKXOH 1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ XQG GLH
$OWNUHLVH 8HFNHU5DQGRZ XQG 2VWYRUSRPPHUQ *HVWDUWHW LP 6HSWHPEHU VROO (QGH
HLQH DXVIKUOLFKH %LODQ] JH]RJHQ ZHUGHQ %LVKHU VLQG |IIHQWOLFK NHLQH =ZLVFKHQHU
JHEQLVVH DEUXIEDU
(LQ GDUJHVWHOOWHV %HLVSLHO GHU Ä5HJLRQDOVWUDWHJLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH³ ZHOFKHV IU GLHVH
$UEHLW YRQ EHVRQGHUHP ,QWHUHVVH LVW LVW GDV DXV GHP 6GKDU].\IIKlXVHU .UHLV ]XU lU]W
OLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ %HULFKWHW ZLUG KLHU EHU GHQ bU]WHPDQJHO GHU 5HJLRQ (LQ =LHO ZHO
72
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
FKHV LP 5DKPHQ GHV 0RGHOOSURMHNWHV 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH HUUHLFKW ZHUGHQ VROOWH ZDU GLH
ZRKQRUWQDKH KDXVlU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ XQG GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ GXUFK )DFKlU]WH LQ ]HQWUDOHQ
2UWHQ (V ZXUGH HLQH %HVWDQGVDQDO\VH GXUFKJHIKUW XQG GLH (UUHLFKEDUNHLW GHU $U]WVWDQG
WRUWH HUPLWWHOW 'DUEHU KLQDXV ZXUGH GHU NQIWLJH %HGDUI SURJQRVWL]LHUW XP $XVVDJHQ
EHU GLH 1DFKIUDJH GHU QlFKVWHQ -DKUH ]X HUP|JOLFKHQ (V ZXUGHQ DXFK 6]HQDULHQ HQWZL
FNHOW GLH GDUOHJWHQ ZHOFKH )ROJHQ GLH 6FKOLH‰XQJ GLYHUVHU 3UD[HQ IU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJ
GHV .UHLVHV KlWWH %HVRQGHUV ZLFKWLJH 6WDQGRUWH NRQQWHQ ORNDOLVLHUW ZHUGHQ (V ZXUGHQ
DXFK +DQGOXQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ZLH GLH 'LVNXVVLRQ PLW GHU .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJ
EHU GLH (UKDOWXQJ SULRULWlUHU 6WDQGRUWH DXIJHIKUW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU 9HUNHKU
%DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ 6 II 'LH (UJHEQLVVH EHOHJWHQ GDVV EHUHLWV MHW]W LQ
HLQLJHQ 7HLOHQ GHV .UHLVHV 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ EHVWHKW (UJHEQLVVH GLH VR DXFK DXI EHVRQ
GHUV EHQDFKWHLOLJWH 5HJLRQHQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQV ]XWUHIIHQ XQG GDV REZRKO GLH
ÄRI¿]LHOOHQ³ =DKOHQ G K GLH 9HUVRUJXQJVJUDGH GHU 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH HKHU HLQH hEHUYHU
VRUJXQJ DQ]HLJHQ
Exkurs: Multiple Häuser
(LQ ZHLWHUHV )RUVFKXQJVYRUKDEHQ GDV GHU Ä0XOWLSOHQ +lXVHU³ ZLUG LP 5DKPHQ GHU )RU
VFKXQJVLQLWLDWLYH Ä=XNXQIW %DX³ GHV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXPV IU 9HUNHKU %DX XQG 6WDGW
SODQXQJ GXUFKJHIKUW XQG ]lKOW ]XP +DQGOXQJVIHOG Ä1HXH )RUPHQ GHV :RKQHQV XQG
=XVDPPHQOHEHQV³ GHV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQV Ä5HJLRQ VFKDIIW =XNXQIW³
:DV VLQG Ä0XOWLSOH +lXVHU³" 'DV 0RWWR ODXWHW 9RP /HHUVWDQG ]XP 0XOWLSOHQ +DXV 'LH
VH +lXVHU VROOHQ LQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5HJLRQHQ HLQH $QODXIVWHOOH IU %UJHU ELHWHQ XQG RIIHULH
UHQ GLYHUVH $QJHERWH GHU PHGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GHV +DQGHOV IUHLHU *HZHUNH HWF
GLH YRQ 7DJ ]X 7DJ ZHFKVHOQ N|QQHQ 6R N|QQHQ VLFK bU]WH 3K\VLRWKHUDSHXWHQ )ULVHXUH
DEHU DXFK (LQ]HOKlQGOHU XQG 9HUHLQH DQ YHUVFKLHGHQHQ 7DJHQ LP MHZHLOLJHQ +DXV HLQPLH
WHQ *HSODQW LVW HLQ 5RWDWLRQVSULQ]LS LQ HLQHP 1HW] YRQ PXOWLSOHQ +lXVHUQ 6R N|QQHQ GLH
%HWHLOLJWHQ IQI ELV VHFKV 7DJH GLH :RFKH DQ YHUVFKLHGHQHQ 6WDQGRUWHQ GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ
GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ LP OlQGOLFKHQ 5DXP JDUDQWLHUHQ RKQH GDVV IU GLH EHWHLOLJWHQ bU]WH
3K\VLRWKHUDSHXWHQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ XQG +lQGOHU XPIDQJUHLFKH .RVWHQ IU HLJHQH )LOLDOHQ
3UD[HQ RGHU =ZHLJVWHOOHQ DQIDOOHQ
=XU .RVWHQGHFNXQJ GHU %HWULHEVNRVWHQ N|QQHQ 5lXPOLFKNHLWHQ GHV +DXVHV DEHU DXFK
YRQ GHQ %UJHUQ DQJHPLHWHW ZHUGHQ XP )HLHUQ ]X YHUDQVWDOWHQ 1DFKEDUVFKDIWVWUHIIV
DXI]XEDXHQ VLFK LQ 6HOEVWKLOIHJUXSSHQ ]X WUHIIHQ XQG lKQOLFKHV 'LH 1XW]XQJ GXUFK *H
PHLQGHVFKZHVWHUQ LVW HEHQIDOOV LQ 5HJLRQHQ PLW GURKHQGHU 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ DQJHGDFKW
XQG YRQ 9RUWHLO YJO 5HLFKHQEDFK%HKQLVFK 6 %UJHU N|QQHQ VLFK PLW LKUHQ
JHVXQGKHLWOLFKHQ %HVFKZHUGHQ EHL GHU *HPHLQGHVFKZHVWHU YRUVWHOOHQ RKQH GHQ RIWPDOV
VFKRQ VHKU ZHLWHQ :HJ ]XP $U]W DXI VLFK QHKPHQ ]X PVVHQ 'LHVHU $QVDW] ZXUGH EH
UHLWV LP 3URJUDPP Ä6FKZHVWHU $*Q(V³ $*Q(6 $U]WHQWODVWHQGH *HPHLQGHQDKH (
+HDOWKJHVWW]WH 6\VWHPLVFKH ,QWHUYHQWLRQ XPJHVHW]W XQG NDQQ GXUFKDXV SRVLWLYH (U
IROJH YRUZHLVHQ 9RU DOOHP lOWHUH XQG PRELO HLQJHVFKUlQNWH %UJHU N|QQHQ YRQ GLHVHP
73
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
$QJHERW SUR¿WLHUHQ
,P -XQL ZXUGHQ PHKUHUH *HElXGH LQ GHU 5HJLRQ 6WHWWLQHU +DII DXVJHZlKOW XP GDULQ
PXOWLSOH +lXVHU ]X HUULFKWHQ =X GHQ 0RGHOOG|UIHUQ ]lKOHQ 9RJHOVDQJ:DUVLQ $OWZDUS
5LHWK +LQWHUVHH $KOEHFN *ODGURZ /|ZLW] XQG 6FKODWNRZ ,Q 9RJHOVDQJ:DUVLQ VROO
EHLVSLHOVZHLVH GLH DOWH 'RUIVFKXOH $QIDQJ $XJXVW ]XP PXOWLSOHQ +DXV DXVJHEDXW
ZHUGHQ 'LH 0LWWHO GHU EHDQWUDJWHQ =XZHQGXQJ NRPPHQ DXV GHP (XURSlLVFKHQ /DQGZLUW
VFKDIWVIRQGV IU GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ GHV OlQGOLFKHQ 5DXPV $XFK GLH DQGHUHQ 0RGHOOG|UIHU
EH¿QGHQ VLFK LQ GHU ]ZHLWHQ :HWWEHZHUEVSKDVH IU GHQ /($'(5:HWWEHZHUE 0HFNOHQ
EXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ Ä%HVW3UDFWLFH%HLVSLHOH ]XU 6LFKHUXQJ GHU *UXQGYHUVRUJXQJ
'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH LQ GHQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5lXPHQ XQWHU %HUFNVLFKWLJXQJ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHOV³ YJO KWWSZZZPXOWLSOHVKDXVGHDKOEHFNBIRHUGHUPLWWHODQWUDJKWP „Ergebnis des Forschungsprojekts ist die Entwicklung eines prototyphaften Gebäudes als bauliche Hülle für vielfältige Nutzungen, die im Tagesrhythmus wechseln können. Es dient
der Wiederbelebung der verlorengegangenen Infrastruktur und somit der Erhöhung der
Lebensqualität in ländlichen Regionen.“ KWWSZZZPXOWLSOHVKDXVGHJHJHQVWDQGBIRU
VFKXQJVYRUKDEHQKWP 'LH 5lXPOLFKNHLWHQ GHU PXOWLSOHQ +lXVHU PVVHQ IU GLH YHU
VFKLHGHQVWHQ 1XW]XQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ JHSODQW XQG DXVJHVWDWWHW ZHUGHQ 1LFKW MHGHU 5DXP
NDQQ DXV UHFKWOLFKHQ XQG K\JLHQLVFKHQ *UQGHQ IU MHGH 1XW]XQJ ]XU 9HUIJXQJ VWHKHQ
VR LVW HLQH 8QWHUJOLHGHUXQJ LQ PHGL]LQLVFK JHQXW]WH XQG IU +DQGHO XQG 9HUDQVWDOWXQJHQ
JHQXW]WH %HUHLFKH GHV +DXVHV VLQQYROO 'LH 0LHWH XQG 1HEHQNRVWHQ ZHUGHQ DXI DOOH 0LH
WHU YHUWHLOW (UIRUGHUOLFK VLQG GDV (QJDJHPHQW GHU 'RUIEHZRKQHU XQG GHUHQ 2IIHQKHLW
IU GDV QHXH $QJHERW 6LH VHOEVW N|QQHQ GDV +DXV PLW /HEHQ IOOHQ XQG (LQÀXVV DXI GLH
LQKDOWOLFKH $XVJHVWDOWXQJ GHU 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ LP +DXV QHKPHQ 'LH 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJVDQ
ELHWHU VLQG DEHU DXFK DXI GLH $QQDKPH LKUHV $QJHERWHV DQJHZLHVHQ XP ZLUWVFKDIWOLFK
WUDJIlKLJ DUEHLWHQ ]X N|QQHQ 'HU )RUVFKXQJVEHULFKW YRQ -DQD 5HLFKHQEDFK%HKQLVFK
EHVFKUHLEW DXFK (QHUJLHNRQ]HSWH XQG )LQDQ]LHUXQJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ]XU 8PVHW]XQJ GHU
PXOWLSOHQ +lXVHU „‚Alte Dorfschule m.H.‘– durch den einfachen Zusatz m.H. im Namen
ZLUG HLQ *HElXGH DOV 0XOWLSOHV +DXV UHJLRQDO XQG EHUUHJLRQDO LGHQWL¿]LHUEDU³ KWWS
ZZZPXOWLSOHVKDXVGHID]LWKWP
'HU DNWXHOOH 8PVHW]XQJVVWDQG LQ GHQ HLQ]HOQHQ 0RGHOOUHJLRQHQ NDQQ XQWHU KWWSZZZ
PXOWLSOHVKDXVGHLQGH[KWP DEJHUXIHQ ZHUGHQ 'DV .RQ]HSW HUZHLVW VLFK DOV HLQH VHKU
JXWH 0|JOLFKNHLW VRZRKO GLH %DXVXEVWDQ] YLHOHU '|UIHU ]X HUKDOWHQ LQ GHQ *HPHLQGHQ
ZLHGHU HLQ OHEHQGLJHV 'RUI]HQWUXP DXI]XEDXHQ XQG ]XJOHLFK GHQ %HGUIQLVVHQ GHU %U
JHU GXUFK GHQ $XIEDX HLQHU VR]LDOHQ ,QIUDVWUXNWXU HQWJHJHQ ]X NRPPHQ
)RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD Ä'DV $OWHU KDW =XNXQIW³
'LH Ä)RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ IU GHQ GHPRJUDSKLVFKHQ :DQGHO³ XP
IDVVW VHFKV )RUVFKXQJVIHOGHU YRQ GHQ Ä*UXQGVDW]IUDJHQ HLQHU *HVHOOVFKDIW GHV OlQJHUHQ
/HEHQV³ EHU ÄbOWHU ZHUGHQ EHL JXWHU *HVXQGKHLW³ ELV ]X Ä0LW JXWHU 3ÀHJH ]X PHKU
/HEHQVTXDOLWlW³ 'LH 3RWHQ]LDOH GHV $OWHUV VROOHQ GXUFK GLYHUVH 0D‰QDKPHQ JHI|UGHUW
74
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
ZHUGHQ VRGDVV LP EHVWHQ )DOO HLQ JHVDPWJHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHU 1XW]HQ HQWVWHKW (LQHV GHU
=LHOH GHU $JHQGD LVW GLH 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJ GHU KlXVOLFKHQ 3ÀHJH GLH YRQ YLHOHQ bOWHUHQ JH
JHQEHU HLQHU %HWUHXXQJ LQ HLQHU 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJ JHZQVFKW ZLUG 'LHV EHGHXWHW HLQH
]XVlW]OLFKH %HODVWXQJ IU 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ ZHVKDOE ]X GHUHQ 8QWHUVWW]XQJ YHUVFKLHGH
QH 0D‰QDKPHQ XPJHVHW]W ZHUGHQ 'D]X ]lKOW ] % GLH (QWZLFNOXQJ YRQ WHFKQLVFKHQ
$VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPHQ GLH GHQ 3ÀHJHDOOWDJ HUOHLFKWHUQ VROOHQ $XFK GLH 6HOEVWVWlQGLJNHLW
GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ VROO GXUFK VSH]LHOOH $VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPH HUOHLFKWHUW ZHUGHQ 6HLW ZHUGHQ YRP %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU %LOGXQJ XQG )RUVFKXQJ PHKU DOV 3URMHNWH IU DO
WHUVJHUHFKWH $VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPH JHI|UGHUW GDUXQWHU X D GDV )RUVFKXQJVSURJUDPP Ä$OWHUV
JHUHFKWH $VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPH IU HLQ JHVXQGHV XQG XQDEKlQJLJHV /HEHQ ± $$/³ RGHU GDV
3URMHNW $&&(66 ZHOFKHV HLQ HOHNWURQLVFKHV /HLWV\VWHP ]XU EDUULHUHIUHLHQ 5RXWHQSOD
QXQJ XQG 1DYLJDWLRQ GXUFK 6WlGWH XQG *HElXGH IU JHKEHKLQGHUWH 6HQLRUHQ HQWZLFNHOW
'DUEHU KLQDXV ZHUGHQ )RUVFKXQJVSURMHNWH JHI|UGHUW GLH LQWHUQDWLRQDOH (UIDKUXQJHQ GHV
3UD[LVKDQGHOQV LQ GLH IDPLOLlUH 3ÀHJH HLQELQGHQ VROOHQ $XFK HLQ %HLWUDJ ]XU $WWUDNWLYL
WlWVVWHLJHUXQJ GHV $UEHLWVIHOGHV 3ÀHJH LVW YRUJHVHKHQ XP GHQ %HUXI DXFK NQIWLJ IU HLQH
9LHO]DKO YRQ 6FKXODEJlQJHUQ RGHU 8PVFKOHUQ LQWHUHVVDQW ]X PDFKHQ 9JO %XQGHVPL
QLVWHULXP IU %LOGXQJ XQG )RUVFKXQJ II
'LH )RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD VHW]W VLFK ]XP =LHO „[…] Fragen der gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe
älterer Menschen zu erforschen und innovative Lösungen, einschließlich neuer Produkte
und Dienstleistungen für ein langes und gesundes Altern zu entwickeln.“ %XQGHVPL
QLVWHULXP IU %LOGXQJ XQG )RUVFKXQJ 'LHV JHVFKLHKW ]XPHLVW LP 5DKPHQ GHU
)|UGHUXQJ YRQ 9HUEXQGSURMHNWHQ 'LH /DXI]HLW GHU )RUVFKXQJVDJHQGD LVW ELV (QGH DXVJHULFKWHW hEHU HUVWH (UJHEQLVVH NDQQ ELVKHU QRFK QLFKW EHULFKWHW ZHUGHQ
=XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWW 'HPHQ]
(LQ EHVRQGHUHU 6FKZHUSXQNW GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN OLHJW DXI GHU %HZlOWLJXQJ GHU +HU
DXVIRUGHUXQJHQ GLH GLH =XQDKPH QHXURGHJHQHUDWLYHU (UNUDQNXQJHQ PLW VLFK EULQJW 'D
KHU JLQJ GDV /HXFKWWXUPSURMHNW 'HPHQ] ± ZHOFKHV YRQ ELV 3URMHNWH I|UGHU
WH LQ GLH =XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWW 'HPHQ] EHU 'LHVHV 1DFKIROJHSURJUDPP VROO HUJlQ]HQG
ZLUNHQ XQG EHUHLWV YRUKDQGHQHV :LVVHQ LQ GLH 3UD[LV EHUIKUHQ YJO KWWSZZZEPJ
EXQGGHSÀHJHGHPHQ]]XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWWGHPHQ]KWPO ,P 5DKPHQ GHU /HXFKWWXUP
SURMHNWH ZXUGH ] % XQWHUVXFKW ZHOFKHQ (LQÀXVV QLFKWPHGLNDPHQW|VH %HKDQGOXQJHQ
± X D (UJR RGHU 9HUKDOWHQVWKHUDSLH ± KDEHQ 'D]X ZXUGH HLQH 6WXGLH GXUFKJHIKUW GLH
]XP (UJHEQLV NDP GDVV VLFK GDV SV\FKLVFKH :RKOEH¿QGHQ GXUFK 9HUKDOWHQVWKHUDSLHQ
YHUEHVVHUW $XFK VR JHQDQQWH 0HKUNRPSRQHQWHQ$NWLYLHUXQJVSURJUDPPH GLH *HLVW XQG
.|USHU DNWLYLHUHQ VROOHQ IKUWHQ ]X GHP (UJHEQLV GDVV NRJQLWLYH )lKLJNHLWHQ EHU HLQ
-DKU HUKDOWHQ ZHUGHQ NRQQWHQ ZDV DOV JUR‰HU )RUWVFKULWW JHZHUWHW ZHUGHQ NDQQ (V ZXU
GHQ HEHQIDOOV 3URMHNWH GXUFKJHIKUW GLH IU $QJHK|ULJH XQWHUVWW]HQG ZLUNHQ VROOWHQ
'D]X JHK|UHQ 7DQGHPJUXSSHQ LQ GHQHQ VLFK MHZHLOV $QJHK|ULJH XQG %HWURIIHQH WUDIHQ
RGHU GDV $QJHERW HLQHU WHOHIRQLVFKHQ 7KHUDSLH $XFK .RQ]HSWH IU GLH VWDWLRQlUH 3ÀHJH
ZXUGHQ HQWZLFNHOW XQG 0|JOLFKNHLWHQ GHV PRGHULHUWHQ $XVWDXVFKHV YRQ 3ÀHJHIDFKNUDIW
75
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
%HWURIIHQHP XQG $QJHK|ULJHQ JHERWHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW F
6 II 9LHOH GHU 3URMHNWH NRQQWHQ VHKU SRVLWLYH (UJHEQLVVH HU]LHOHQ XQG VROOWHQ GD
KHU DXVJHZHLWHW ZHUGHQ YRU DOOHP GD GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ DQ 'HPHQ] (UNUDQNWHU EHVRQGHUH
.RPSHWHQ]HQ HUIRUGHUW XQG PLW VWDUNHQ %HODVWXQJHQ IU 3ÀHJHQGH YHUEXQGHQ LVW :HOFKH
3URMHNWH GLH =XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWW 'HPHQ] ELVKHU I|UGHUW VWDQG ]XP =HLWSXQNW GHV 9HUIDV
VHQV GLHVHU $UEHLW QRFK QLFKW IHVW
0HKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKlXVHU
9RQ ELV ZXUGH GDV $NWLRQVSURJUDPP 0HKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKlXVHU 0*+ GXUFK
GLH %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ JHI|UGHUW „Für ein gutes Miteinander der Generationen stehen die
Angebote der Mehrgenerationenhäuser, die praktische Hilfe und freiwilliges Engagement
miteinander verbinden.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 %LVKHU VLQG GLHVHU +lXVHU HQWVWDQGHQ LQ GHQHQ GDV =XVDPPHQWUHIIHQ GHU *HQHUDWLRQHQ HUP|JOLFKW
ZLUG 0HLVW ZHUGHQ 8QWHUVWW]XQJHQ IU )DPLOLHQ RGHU KDXVKDOWVQDKH 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJHQ
DQJHERWHQ $XFK %HUDWXQJHQ 'HPHQ]NUDQNHU XQG GHUHQ $QJHK|ULJHQ ¿QGHQ LQ =XVDP
PHQDUEHLW PLW GHU 'HXWVFKHQ $O]KHLPHUJHVHOOVFKDIW VWDWW ZRPLW DXI HLQH )ROJH GHU DQ
VWHLJHQGHQ /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ UHDJLHUW ZLUG YJO KWWSZZZPHKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKDHXVHU
GHZHEJXHVW XQG %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 ,Q YLHOHQ 6WlGWHQ XQG
*HPHLQGHQ KDEHQ VLFK GLH 0HKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKlXVHU DOV YHUELQGOLFKH $QODXIVWHOOH YRU DO
OHP IU lOWHUH 0HQVFKHQ HWDEOLHUW .ULWLVFK LVW MHGRFK GDVV YLHOH GLHVHU +lXVHU QLFKW WUl
JHUXQDEKlQJLJ DJLHUHQ XQG GLH %LQGXQJ DQ HLQHQ JUR‰HQ :RKOIDKUWVYHUEDQG RGHU NLUFK
OLFKHQ 7UlJHU JUR‰H 3HUVRQHQNUHLVH YRQ GHQ $QJHERWHQ GHV 0*+ DXVVFKOLH‰W +LHU JLOW
HV /|VXQJHQ ]X ¿QGHQ 'LH SRVLWLYHQ (UJHEQLVVH VROOHQ LQ HLQHU ]ZHLWHQ 3URMHNWODXISKDVH
IRUWJHIKUW ZHUGHQ
6.2 Maßnahmen der Gesundheitspolitik
„Ziel der Bundesregierung ist es, dass alle Menschen in Deutschland auch in Zukunft
unabhängig von Einkommen, Alter und gesundheitlichem Risiko die notwendige medizinische Versorgung qualitativ hochwertig und wohnortnah erhalten und am medizinischen
Fortschritt teilhaben können.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'XUFK GL
YHUVH 5HIRUPHQ XQG *HVHW]HVHQWZUIH YHUJDQJHQHU -DKUH VROO GLHVHV =LHO HUUHLFKW ZHU
GHQ ,Q IROJHQGHQ ZHUGHQ GLH ZLFKWLJVWHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ GHU *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN LQ %H]XJ
DXI GHQ GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO NXU] ]XVDPPHQJHIDVVW
76
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
(LQIKUXQJ XQG (UZHLWHUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ
%HUHLWV PLW (LQIKUXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZXUGH HLQH ZLFKWLJH +UGH ]XU
$EVLFKHUXQJ GHV 5LVLNRV GHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW JHQRPPHQ :LH EHUHLWV EHVFKULHEHQ
IROJW GLH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ GHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ XQG PXVV DEJHVFKORVVHQ ZHUGHQ
+LHU ¿QGHW NHLQH %HGDUIVGHFNXQJ VWDWW VRQGHUQ OHGLJOLFK HLQH 0LQGHUXQJ GHU DQIDOOHQ
GHQ .RVWHQ (LQ =LHO GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ LVW HV 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ ]X XQWHUVWW]HQ XQG
HLQHQ P|JOLFKVW ODQJHQ 9HUEOHLE 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU LQ GHU KlXVOLFKHQ 8PJHEXQJ ]X JH
ZlKUOHLVWHQ 'LH VWHLJHQGH /HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ XQG SUR]HQWXDOH =XQDKPH bOWHUHU DQ GHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ KDW $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI DOOH VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH EHVRQGHUV EHWURIIHQ
LVW GLH 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ GD YRQ HLQHU HUK|KWHQ $Q]DKO 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU YRQ GHU]HLW
0LOOLRQHQ DXI 0LOOLRQHQ ELV DXVJHJDQJHQ ZLUG 'DEHL VSLHOHQ GHPHQWL
HOOH (UNUDQNXQJHQ HLQH EHVRQGHUH 5ROOH 'LH $Q]DKO GHU (UNUDQNWHQ ZLUG VLFK ELV IDVW YHUGRSSHOQ %LVKHU VLQG FD 0LOOLRQHQ 0HQVFKHQ GHPHQ]NUDQN LQ 'HXWVFKODQG
'LH $XVJDEHQ GHU 3ÀHJHNDVVHQ ZHUGHQ GHPQDFK VWHLJHQ ZHVKDOE ]XP -XOL GHU
%HLWUDJVVDW] DXI 3UR]HQW EHL .LQGHUORVHQ 3UR]HQW DQJHKREHQ ZXUGH „Die AnKHEXQJ GHV %HLWUDJVVDW]HV XP 3UR]HQWSXQNWH IKUW LQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHrung zu jährlichen Mehreinnahmen von rund 2,5 Mrd. Euro.“ KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGH
SÀHJHSÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJEHLWUDJVVDW]EHLWUDJVKRHKHKWPO 'LHVH VLQG QRWZHQGLJ ZHQQ
PDQ HLQHQ %OLFN DXI GLH VWHLJHQGHQ $XVJDEHQ GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ ZLUIW LP
-DKU VWLHJHQ GLH $XVJDEHQ XP 0LOOLDUGHQ DXI 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR
*HVHW]HVHQWZUIH XQG 5HIRUPHQ
2011 trat das GKV-Finanzierungsgesetz LQ .UDIW ZHOFKHV GHU 6WDELOLVLHUXQJ GHU *.9
GLHQHQ VROO 'D]X ZXUGHQ IROJHQGH 0D‰QDKPHQ HUJULIIHQ )HVWVHW]XQJ GHV $UEHLWJHEHU
DQWHLOV DXI (LQIKUXQJ HLQNRPPHQVXQDEKlQJLJHU =XVDW]EHLWUlJH GLH HV GHQ .UDQ
NHQNDVVHQ HUODXEHQ „[…] ihre Vorteile mit festen Europreisen darzustellen und damit zu
werben.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 XQG (LQIKUXQJ GHV 6R]LDODXV
JOHLFKV
'DV 3ÀHJHZHLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJVJHVHW] YRQ VHW]WH VLFK ]XP =LHO KlXVOLFKH 3ÀHJH
YHUPHKUW ]X XQWHUVWW]HQ XQG IKUWH ]XP $XVEDX DPEXODQWHU XQG VWDWLRQlUHU /HLVWXQJHQ
(V ZLUG GDUEHU KLQDXV UHJHOPl‰LJ JHSUIW RE /HLVWXQJHQ DQJHSDVVW ZHUGHQ PVVHQ YJO
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 'LH %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ VLHKW VLFK DXFK LQ GHU
3ÀLFKW HKUHQDPWOLFKH 3ÀHJH ]X XQWHUVWW]HQ XP GLH SURIHVVLRQHOOH 3ÀHJH ]X HQWODVWHQ
'DV 3ÀHJH1HXDXVULFKWXQJV*HVHW] 31* ZHOFKHV YHUDEVFKLHGHW ZXUGH ZLOO
PLW QHXHQ ,GHHQ XQG 8QWHUVWW]XQJVOHLVWXQJHQ DXI GLH $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
:DQGHOV UHDJLHUHQ 'D]X JHK|UW GLH )|UGHUXQJ YRQ 3ÀHJHZRKQJUXSSHQ GLH 9HUEHVVH
UXQJ GHU DPEXODQWHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ 'HPHQ]NUDQNHU GLH $XVZHLWXQJ GHU 8QWHUVWW]XQJ
SÀHJHQGHU $QJHK|ULJHU XQG GLH )|UGHUXQJ GHU IUHLZLOOLJHQ SULYDWHQ 9RUVRUJH YJO KWWS
ZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]KWPO 3UR 3HUVRQ N|QQHQ
77
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
GLH :*%HZRKQHU (XUR )|UGHUXQJ HUKDOWHQ PD[LPDO (XUR SUR *UXSSH ]
% ZHQQ VLH 8PEDXWHQ DQ LKUHU :RKQXQJ YRUQHKPHQ ZROOHQPVVHQ $XFK HLQH PRQDW
OLFKH )|UGHUXQJ L + Y (XUR DOV $XVJOHLFK GHV K|KHUHQ 2UJDQLVDWLRQVDXIZDQGHV LVW
P|JOLFK YJO KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]SÀHJH
ZRKQJUXSSHQKWPO
'LH 9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU DPEXODQWHQ 3ÀHJH 'HPHQ]NUDQNHU EH]LHKW QXQ DXFK %HWUHXXQJV
OHLVWXQJHQ HLQ =XGHP N|QQHQ =HLWYROXPHQ IU GLH 3ÀHJH YHUHLQEDUW ZHUGHQ „GemeinVDP PLW GHQ 3ÀHJHGLHQVWHQ N|QQHQ VLH VLFK GDGXUFK ÀH[LEHO DXI /HLVWXQJHQ YHUVWlQGLJHQ
die auch insbesondere den Bedürfnissen von Demenzpatienten gerecht werden.“ KWWS
ZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]GHPHQ]KWPO $XFK GLH
+|KH GHU /HLVWXQJHQ IU 'HPHQ]NUDQNH ZXUGH DQJHSDVVW IU DOOH 3ÀHJHVWXIHQ DXFK GLH
der Stufe 014
'LH 8QWHUVWW]XQJ SÀHJHQGHU $QJHK|ULJHU ]lKOW ]X HLQHP ZLFKWLJHQ (OHPHQW GHV 31*
GHQQ GDGXUFK HUKRIIW PDQ VLFK GHQ OlQJHUHQ 9HUEOHLE 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHU LP KlXVOLFKHQ
8PIHOG $QJHK|ULJH VROOHQ NQIWLJ EHL ,QDQVSUXFKQDKPH YRQ .XU]]HLW RGHU 9HUKLQGH
UXQJVSÀHJH ZHLWHUKLQ GLH +lOIWH GHV 3ÀHJHJHOGHV HUKDOWHQ 'DPLW ZLUG HV LKQHQ HUP|J
OLFKW $XV]HLWHQ ]X QHKPHQ GLH NHLQHQ DOO]X JUR‰HQ ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ (LQVFKQLWW EHGHXWHQ (LQH
9HUEHVVHUXQJ GHU 5HJHOXQJHQ ]XU 5HQWHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ YRQ 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ LVW HEHQIDOOV
EHDEVLFKWLJW KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]KWPO
8P GLHVH /HLVWXQJVHUZHLWHUXQJHQ ]X ¿QDQ]LHUHQ LVW HLQH %HLWUDJVVDW]DQKHEXQJ XP %HLWUDJVVDW]SXQNWH ]XP -DQXDU YRUJHVHKHQ 'D GLH 8PODJH¿QDQ]LHUXQJ GHU 3ÀH
JHYHUVLFKHUXQJ QLFKW DOV ]XNXQIWVWUlFKWLJ EHWUDFKWHW ZLUG ZLUG PLW GHP 31* HLQH .D
SLWDOGHFNXQJ HLQJHIKUW YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 9HUVLFKHUWH
N|QQHQ SULYDWH 3ÀHJH]XVDW]YHUVLFKHUXQJHQ DEVFKOLH‰HQ GLH VWDDWOLFK JHI|UGHUW ZHUGHQ
9RUJHVHKHQ LVW HLQ MlKUOLFKHU =XVFKXVV YRQ (XUR ]XU 9HUVLFKHUXQJVSUlPLH /HLVWXQJHQ
ZHUGHQ GDQQ LP )DOOH HLQHU 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW DOV 3ÀHJHPRQDWVJHOG LQ $EKlQJLJNHLW
]XU 3ÀHJHVWXIH JH]DKOW 'HU PRQDWOLFKH 0LQGHVWEHLWUDJ OLHJW EHL (XUR XQG GDUI DOV
+|FKVWJUHQ]H GHQ %HLWUDJVVDW] GHU VR]LDOHQ 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ QLFKW EHUVFKUHLWHQ (V
EHVWHKW .RQWUDKLHUXQJV]ZDQJ XQG HLQ $XVVFKOXVV YRQ 5LVLNREHLWUlJHQ YJO KWWSZZZ
EPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]¿QDQ]LHUXQJKWPO
'DV 3ÀHJH]HLWJHVHW] YRQ HUP|JOLFKW HV (UZHUEVWlWLJHQ EHL $XIWUHWHQ HLQHV 3ÀH
JHIDOOV LQ GHU )DPLOLH ]HKQ 7DJH YRQ GHU $UEHLW IHUQ]XEOHLEHQ XP GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ ]X
UHJHOQ :ROOHQ VLH GHQ $QJHK|ULJHQ VHOEVW SÀHJHQ N|QQHQ VLH HLQH VHFKVPRQDWLJH $XV
]HLW 3ÀHJH]HLW QHKPHQ =XP -DQXDU ZXUGH HEHQIDOOV GLH )DPLOLHQSÀHJH]HLW
EHVFKORVVHQ Ä'XUFK VLH VROO SÀHJHQGHQ $QJHK|ULJHQ GLH 0|JOLFKNHLW HU|IIQHW ZHUGHQ
LQ HLQHP =HLWUDXP YRQ ELV ]X ]ZHL -DKUHQ ]XU KlXVOLFKHQ 3ÀHJH YRQ $QJHK|ULJHQ PLW
reduzierter Stundenanzahl im Beruf weiterzuarbeiten und durch eine staatlich geförderte
$XIVWRFNXQJ LKUHV $UEHLWVHQWJHOWV GHQQRFK LKUH ¿QDQ]LHOOH /HEHQVJUXQGODJH ]X EHKDOten.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 $UEHLWHQ 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ GDQQ QXU
QRFK PLW GHU KDOEHQ 6WXQGHQ]DKO HUKDOWHQ VLH LKUHV %UXWWRHLQNRPPHQV PVVHQ
3DWLHQWHQ RKQH 3ÀHJHVWXIH GHUHQ 3ÀHJHEHGDUI QRFK XQWHU 0LQXWHQ *UXQGYHUVRUJXQJ DP 7DJ OLHJW
78
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
GDQQ DEHU LQ GHU 1DFKSÀHJHSKDVH ZLHGHU 9ROO]HLW IU ZHLWHUKLQ GHV *HOGHV DUEHLWHQ
ELV HLQ $XVJOHLFK GHV =HLWNRQWRV VWDWWJHIXQGHQ KDW %HUXI XQG 3ÀHJH N|QQHQ VR EHVVHU
PLWHLQDQGHU YHUHLQEDUW ZHUGHQ
'DV *.90RGHUQLVLHUXQJVJHVHW] *0* HUODVVHQ HUP|JOLFKWH X D GLH (U|II
QXQJ 0HGL]LQLVFKHU 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ 09= XQG GLH DPEXODQWH 9HUVRUJXQJ LQ .UDQ
NHQKlXVHUQ YJO KWWSZZZDRNEYGHOH[LNRQJLQGH[BKWPO 'LHVH 0D‰QDKPHQ
VWHOOHQ HLQHQ HQWVFKHLGHQGHQ %HLWUDJ ]XU EHGDUIVJHUHFKWHQ PHGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU
%HY|ONHUXQJ YRU DOOHP LQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5HJLRQHQ GLH EHVRQGHUV YRP %HY|ONHUXQJVUFN
JDQJ XQG bU]WHPDQJHO EHWURIIHQ VLQG GDU
'DV *.99HUVRUJXQJVVWUXNWXUJHVHW] *.996W* YRP -DQXDU ]LHOW LQVEH
VRQGHUH DXI HLQH EHVVHUH 9HUVRUJXQJ IU 3DWLHQWHQ ÀH[LEOHUH 9HUVRUJXQJVVWUXNWXUHQ DXI
GHP /DQG $QUHL]H IU bU]WH LQ VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKHQ *HELHWHQ JXWH 5DKPHQEHGLQJXQJHQ
IU GHQ $U]WEHUXI XQG ]LHOJHQDXH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ DE /HW]WHUH VROO NQIWLJ QLFKW PHKU QXU
GHQ 6WDGW XQG /DQGNUHLVHQ HQWVSUHFKHQ 'DVV HLQH GHUDUWLJH (LQWHLOXQJ GHU 3ODQXQJV
EHUHLFKH SUREOHPDWLVFK LVW ZXUGH LQ YRUDQJHJDQJHQHQ .DSLWHOQ EHUHLWV GDUJHOHJW GD VR
WURW] VFKHLQEDUHU hEHUYHUVRUJXQJ HLQH WDWVlFKOLFKH 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ LQ HLQLJHQ 5HJLRQHQ
YRUOLHJW :HLWHUKLQ VROOHQ PRELOH 9HUVRUJXQJVNRQ]HSWH XQG GLH 9HUHLQEDUNHLW YRQ %HUXI
XQG )DPLOLH JHI|UGHUW XQG GHU $XVEDX GHU 7HOHPHGL]LQ15 JHI|UGHUW ZHUGHQ (LQH OHLV
WXQJVJHUHFKWHUH 9HUJWXQJ lU]WOLFKHU /HLVWXQJHQ ZXUGH HEHQVR EHVFKORVVHQ YJO KWWS
ZZZEPJEXQGGHNUDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJJNYYHUVRUJXQJVVWUXNWXUJHVHW]JNYYHUVRU
JXQJVVWUXNWXUJHVHW]KWPO 'DUJHOHJW ZXUGHQ QXU HLQLJH GHU bQGHUXQJHQ GLH GDV *.9
96W* PLW VLFK EULQJW GD GLHVH YRQ EHVRQGHUHP ,QWHUHVVH IU GLHVH $UEHLW VLQG
:HLWHUH 3URMHNWH
1HEHQ GHQ )|UGHUSURJUDPPHQ GHV %XQGHV H[LVWLHUHQ DXFK 3URMHNWH GLH DXI ,QLWLDWLYH HLQ
]HOQHU $NWHXUH RGHU 9HUHLQH HQWVWDQGHQ VLQG (LQLJH DXVJHZlKOWH VROOHQ NXU] YRUJHVWHOOW
ZHUGHQ
:RKQHQ IU +LOIH
„Statt die harte Eurowährung für Wohnraum zu verlangen, erhalten ‚Vermieter‘ Hilfeleistungen im Alltag, die variabel von beiden Parteien vorher vereinbart werden.“ KWWS
ZZZZRKQHQIXHUKLOIHLQIR $OV 0LHWHU WUHWHQ PHLVW 6WXGHQWHQ DXI GLH SUHLVZHUWHQ
:RKQUDXP VXFKHQ
15 „(…) elektronische Übertragung diagnostischer Bilder (CT, MRT), ärztlicher Befunde sowie anderer
medizinischer, patientenbezogener Dokumente zwischen einem Zentrum der Bildgebung/Untersuchung
(Klinik oder Praxis) und einem regional entfernt liegenden Befundzentrum (Expertenzentrum) – mit dem
Ziel, eine integrative Versorgung sicherzustellen.“ KWWSZZZLPDJLQJVHUYLFHGHKRPHBKWPO
79
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
9HUPLHWHU N|QQHQ (LQ]HOSHUVRQHQ DEHU DXFK 9HUHLQH RGHU .RRSHUDWLRQHQ YRQ 6WXGHQ
WHQZHUNHQ XQG DQVlVVLJHQ +RFKVFKXOHQ VHLQ )LQDQ]LHUW ZLUG GDV 3URMHNW GHPQDFK YRQ
GLYHUVHQ 7UlJHUQ ± HV KDQGHOW VLFK QLFKW XP HLQ EXQGHVZHLWHV 3URJUDPP VRQGHUQ ZLUG
DOV ,QLWLDWLYH YRQ 6WlGWHQ XQG +RFKVFKXOVWDQGRUWHQ DXWRQRP YHUZDOWHW YJO KWWSZZZ
ZRKQHQIUKLOIHLQIR
:HOFKH /HLVWXQJHQ YHUHLQEDUW ZHUGHQ ZLUG LQGLYLGXHOO DXVJHKDQGHOW 0|JOLFK VLQG
+DXVKDOWVKLOIH .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJ *DUWHQSÀHJH (LQNDXIHQ JHPHLQVDPH 6SD]LHUJlQJH
RGHU 8QWHUQHKPXQJHQ %LVKHU DXVJHQRPPHQ VLQG 3ÀHJHOHLVWXQJHQ ZHJHQ GHU EHVRQGH
UHQ $QIRUGHUXQJHQ 0HLVW JLOW GDVV SUR JHPLHWHWHP Pð :RKQUDXP PRQDWOLFK HLQH 6WXQ
GH +LOIH DQJHERWHQ ZHUGHQ PXVV 'LH 5HJHOXQJHQ VLQG YRQ 9HUPLHWHU ]X 9HUPLHWHU YHU
VFKLHGHQ :HU :RKQUDXP DQELHWHQ ZLOO NDQQ VLFK DQ GLH MHZHLOLJH Ä:RKQHQ IU +LOIH³
,QLWLDWLYH VHLQHU 6WDGW ZHQGHQ XQG ZLUG EHL SDVVHQGHP :RKQUDXPDQJHERW LQ GLH .DUWHL
DXIJHQRPPHQ XQG DQ SRWHQ]LHOOH 0LHWHU ZHLWHU JHOHLWHW $OV 0LHWHU PXVV PDQ PLQGHVWHQV
-DKUH DOW XQG EHUHLW VHLQ +LOIH ]X OHLVWHQ :HUGHQ GLH :RKQXQJHQ YRQ 6WXGHQWHQZHU
NHQ JHWUDJHQ LVW GHU 6WXGHQWHQVWDWXV 9RUDXVVHW]XQJ
%HUHLWV LQ PHKUHUHQ 6WlGWHQ 'HXWVFKODQGV ± YRQ $DFKHQ EHU 6DDUEUFNHQ ELV 0QFKHQ ±
ZLUG GDV 3URMHNW Ä:RKQHQ IU +LOIH³ DQJHERWHQ XQG HV ELHWHW EHLGHQ 3DUWHLHQ 9RUWHLOH GLH
HLQHQ HUKDOWHQ JQVWLJHQ :RKQUDXP XQG N|QQHQ VLFK VR]LDO HQJDJLHUHQ XQG GLH DQGHUHQ
HUKDOWHQ +LOIH IU $NWLYLWlWHQ GLH VLH DOOHLQ QLFKW PHKU EHZlOWLJHQ N|QQHQ XQG PV
VHQ QLFKW DOOHLQ LQ LKUHP +DXV OHEHQ :HLWHUH ,QIRUPDWLRQHQ JLEW HV XQWHU KWWSZZZ
ZRKQHQIUKLOIHLQIR RGHU KWWSZZZZRKQHQIXHUKLOIHLQIR
'RUI LP 'RUI ± 'REEHUWLQ
'DV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ Ä'RUI LP 'RUI³ LP .ORVWHUGRUI 'REEHUWLQ0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRP
PHUQ VLHKW YRU HLQH 6LHGOXQJ IU bOWHUH LQ GHU 1lKH GHV 'RUINHUQV ]X HUULFKWHQ GLH
VHOEVWEHVWLPPWHV XQG XQDEKlQJLJHV /HEHQ LP KRKHQ $OWHU P|JOLFK PDFKW 'XUFK GLH IX‰
OlX¿JH (UUHLFKEDUNHLW YRQ +DXV XQG )DFKlU]WHQ XQG GLH %DUULHUHIUHLKHLW ZHUGHQ JUXQG
VlW]OLFKH %HGLQJXQJHQ IU HLQ DOWHUVJHUHFKWHV :RKQHQ JHVFKDIIHQ (V VROOHQ :RKQHLQ
KHLWHQ HQWVWHKHQ GLH ]XVDPPHQ PLW 6SLHO XQG )UHLÀlFKHQ HLQH NOHLQH 6LHGOXQJ ELOGHQ
GLH VRZRKO 5FN]XJVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ DOV DXFK 7UHIISXQNWH ELHWHW „Die Häuser werden
den individuellen Bedürfnissen der späteren Bewohner entsprechend geplant als 1.5- bis
3-Zimmer-Wohnungen für Paare und Alleinstehende mit Möglichkeiten des Dachgeschossausbaus für z.B. Gästezimmer.“ KWWSZZZGRU¿PGRUIGH 0RGHUQH (QHUJLHNRQ]HSWH
VROOHQ XPJHVHW]W ZHUGHQ XQG VHOEVWEHVWLPPWHV :RKQHQ GXUFK 9HUZHQGXQJ WHFKQLVFKHU
$VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPH $$/ ± $PELHQW $VVLVWHG /LYLQJ HUP|JOLFKW ZHUGHQ ,P )DOOH HLQHU
3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW LVW GHU (LQ]XJ YRQ %HWUHXXQJVSHUVRQDO HEHQIDOOV PLWJHGDFKW YJO
KWWSZZZGRU¿PGRUIGH
'DV 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ HQWVWHKW LQ .RRSHUDWLRQ YHUVFKLHGHQHU PLWWHOVWlQGLVFKHU 8QWHUQHK
PHQ GHU |IIHQWOLFKHQ +DQG XQG GHU 8QLYHUVLWlW 5RVWRFN
80
:DV ZLUG JHWDQ"
09\RX
09\RX LVW HLQH $JHQWXU GLH LP -DKU YRQ GHU Ä6WLIWXQJ HYDQJHOLVFKH -XJHQG
6FKZHULQ³ XQG GHP ,78QWHUQHKPHQ Ä3ODQHW LQWHUQHW FRPPHUFH³ JHJUQGHW ZXUGH *H
WUDJHQ ZLUG GDV 3URMHNW YRQ GHU 8G: *PE+ *HVHOOVFKDIW IU 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJ 8QWHUQHK
PHQVEHUDWXQJ GHU :LUWVFKDIW LQ .R¿QDQ]LHUXQJ DXV 0LWWHOQ GHV 0LQLVWHULXPV IU $U
EHLW *OHLFKVWHOOXQJ XQG 6R]LDOHV 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ YJO KWWSZZZPY\RX
GHLQGH[SKSGHLPSUHVVXP XQG %HUOLQ ,QVWLWXW IU %HY|ONHUXQJ XQG (QWZLFNOXQJ 6 *HGDFKW LVW HV HKHPDOLJH $EZDQGHUHU GLH HLQH $QVWHOOXQJ LQ LKUHU DOWHQ +HL
PDW VXFKHQ ZLHGHU QDFK 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ ]X KROHQ 1DWUOLFK N|QQHQ DXFK
0HQVFKHQ GLH QLFKW DXV 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ VWDPPHQ GLH 3ODWWIRUP ]XU -REVXFKH
QXW]HQ 'DV 6\VWHP LVW EHGLHQHUIUHXQGOLFK 8QWHUQHKPHQ VWHOOHQ LKUH 6WHOOHQDQJHERWH HLQ
XQG 5FNNHKUZLOOLJH OHJHQ HLQ 3UR¿O DQ XQG QHKPHQ .RQWDNW DXI Ä'LH $JHQWXU PY\RX
stellt Verbindung zwischen Fach- und Führungskräften sowie den im Land angesiedelWHQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ XQG ,QVWLWXWLRQHQ KHU XQG SÀHJW GLHVH³ KWWSZZZPY\RXGHLQGH[
SKSGHXQVHUVHUYLFH 'LH $JHQWXU RUJDQLVLHUW DXFK -REPHVVHQ 09$EHQG 3HQGOHUDN
WLRQHQ :RUNVKRSV XQG 5HFUXWLQJ7RXUHQ XP DXI VLFK XQG LKU $QJHERW DXIPHUNVDP ]X
PDFKHQ %LVKHU VROO HV GHU $JHQWXU JHOXQJHQ VHLQ PHKU DOV $XVZDQGHUHU ZLHGHU
LQ GLH +HLPDW ]XUFN ]X KROHQ 9LHOH YRQ LKQHQ YHUOLH‰HQ GDV /DQG DXIJUXQG VFKOHFKWHU
EHUXÀLFKHU 3HUVSHNWLYHQ XQG VLQG EHUGXUFKVFKQLWWOLFK TXDOL¿]LHUW YJO %HUOLQ ,QVWLWXW IU
%HY|ONHUXQJ XQG (QWZLFNOXQJ 6 81
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
:LH GLH YRUDQ JHJDQJHQHQ $XVIKUXQJHQ EHUHLWV GHXWOLFK JHPDFKW KDEHQ H[LVWLHUHQ VHKU
YLHOH 3URJUDPPH XQG ,QLWLDWLYHQ ]XP 7KHPD $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQ
GHOV $XFK GHU *HVHW]JHEHU KDW UHDJLHUW GXUFK $QSDVVXQJ YRUKDQGHQHU XQG (UODVVHQ QHX
HU *HVHW]H 'LH IROJHQGHQ 3XQNWH VROOHQ ZHLWHUH 'HQNDQVW|‰H OLHIHUQ ZLH NQIWLJ QRFK
EHVVHU PLW 9HUVRUJXQJVIUDJHVWHOOXQJHQ XQG GHQ ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ VRZLH VR]LDOHQ )ROJHQ
GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV XPJHJDQJHQ ZHUGHQ NDQQ
)|UGHUXQJ SURIHVVLRQHOOHU XQG IDPLOLlUHU 3ÀHJH
9RU DOOHP GLH $WWUDNWLYLWlW GHU 3ÀHJHEHUXIH DOV $XVELOGXQJVEHUXIH PXVV YHUVWlUNW ZHU
GHQ GD GLH PHLVWHQ %HVFKlIWLJWHQ =HLW LKUHV /HEHQV LP HUOHUQWHQ %HUXI DUEHLWHQ +LHU
N|QQWH YHUPHKUW GHU $XIWULWW YRQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ DXI UHJLRQDOHQ 0HVVHQ JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ
XP -XJHQGOLFKH IU HLQH $XVELOGXQJ ]X JHZLQQHQ Ä'LH Ã$XVELOGXQJV XQG 4XDOL¿]LHUXQJVRIIHQVLYH $OWHQSÀHJHµ YRQ %XQG /lQGHUQ XQG 9HUElQGHQ ZLUG GLH $XV )RUW XQG
:HLWHUELOGXQJ LQ GHU $OWHQSÀHJH VWlUNHQ XQG GLH $WWUDNWLYLWlW GHV %HUXIV XQG %HVFKlIWLgungsfeldes steigern.“ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 8P GHQ VWHLJHQGHQ
%HGDUI YRQ 3ÀHJHNUlIWHQ LQ GHQ QlFKVWHQ -DKUHQ GHFNHQ ]X N|QQHQ PVVHQ 3ÀHJHEHUXIH
SHUVSHNWLYLVFK DXFK |NRQRPLVFK DWWUDNWLYHU ZHUGHQ KLHU VLQG GHXWOLFKH 9HUEHVVHUXQ
JHQ GHU 9HUGLHQVWP|JOLFKNHLWHQ DQ]XVWUHEHQ 3HUVSHNWLYLVFK VLQQYROO LVW HEHQIDOOV HLQH
JHPHLQVDPH *UXQGDXVELOGXQJ GHU 3ÀHJHEHUXIH XQG DQVFKOLH‰HQGH 6SH]LDOLVLHUXQJ 'LH
VH ZLUG HUIRUGHUOLFK DXIJUXQG GHV LPPHU K|KHUHQ $QVSUXFKHV GHQ GLH 3ÀHJH 'HPHQ]
NUDQNHU HUIRUGHUW 'DGXUFK VROO HV HUP|JOLFKW ZHUGHQ HLQ P|JOLFKVW EUHLWHV *UXQGZLVVHQ
]X HUODQJHQ GDV IU ]DKOUHLFKH (YHQWXDOLWlWHQ LP DQVFKOLH‰HQGHQ %HUXIVOHEHQ ZDSSQHW
:HUGHQ GDUEHU KLQDXV :HLWHUELOGXQJHQ XQG $XIVWLHJVFKDQFHQ LQ 9HUELQGXQJ PLW HLQHU
PLWDUEHLWHUIUHXQGOLFKHQ $UEHLWVDEODXIRUJDQLVDWLRQ DQJHERWHQ ZLUG GLH &KDQFH HUK|KW
3ÀHJHSHUVRQDO ]X JHZLQQHQ XQG LP %HUXI ]X KDOWHQ YJO 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6
(LQ ZHLWHUHU *UXQG ]XU $XVEXQJ HLQHV 3ÀHJHEHUXIHV OLHJW VLFKHUOLFK LQ GHU UHODWLYHQ
$UEHLWVSODW]JDUDQWLH GHQQ 3ÀHJHNUlIWH ZHUGHQ LPPHU XQG LQ DOOHQ 5HJLRQHQ EHQ|WLJW
ZHUGHQ „Eine Umwandlung von geringfügigen Beschäftigungsverhältnissen in Teilzeitverhältnisse oder der Teilzeit- in Vollzeitverhältnisse beziehungsweise eine Anhebung
der geleisteten Wochenstunden bei Teilzeit- oder geringfügig Beschäftigten würde den
3ÀHJHSHUVRQDOHQJSDVV YHU]|JHUQ³ $IHQWDNLV0DLHU 6 'LH KRKH $Q]DKO
DQ 7HLO]HLWEHVFKlIWLJWHQ VSLHJHOW GLH *HVFKOHFKWHUYHUWHLOXQJ ZLGHU 'D YRU DOOHP )UDXHQ
DOV 3ÀHJHNUlIWH DUEHLWHQ XQG VLH DXFK PHLVW GLH IDPLOLlUH .LQGHUEHWUHXXQJ EHUQHKPHQ
DUEHLWHQ VLH KlX¿JHU 7HLO]HLW „Dabei könnte eine bessere Vereinbarkeit von Familie und
%HUXI LQ GHQ 3ÀHJHEHUXIHQ DXFK GD]X EHLWUDJHQ GLH $WWUDNWLYLWlW GHU 3ÀHJHEHUXIH IU
junge Frauen zu steigern.“ $IHQWDNLV0DLHU 6 :LH EHUHLWV HUZlKQW ZLUG EHU HLQH 0LOOLRQ GHU 0LOOLRQHQ 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ DXV
82
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
VFKOLH‰OLFK GXUFK $QJHK|ULJH YHUVRUJW 2KQH GDV (QJDJHPHQW GHU $QJHK|ULJHQ ZlUH GLH
EHGDUIVJHUHFKWH 3ÀHJH QLFKW ]X UHDOLVLHUHQ E]Z ZUGH HLQH HQRUPH %HODVWXQJ GHU VR]LD
OHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH HQWVWHKHQ 8P SÀHJHQGH $QJHK|ULJH ]X XQWHUVWW]HQ ZXUGHQ LQ
GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ ]DKOUHLFKH 5HIRUPHQ HUODVVHQ 'D]X ]lKOHQ X D GDV EHUHLWV HUZlKQWH
3ÀHJH]HLWJHVHW] XQG GDV 31* $XFK GLH (LQIKUXQJ GHU )DPLOLHQSÀHJH]HLW ZLH LQ .D
SLWHO EHVFKULHEHQ VWHOOW HLQH ZHVHQWOLFKH (UOHLFKWHUXQJ GDU 'LH SK\VLVFKHQ XQG
SV\FKLVFKHQ %HODVWXQJHQ HLQHU MDKUHODQJHQ 3ÀHJHWlWLJNHLW GUIHQ HEHQIDOOV QLFKW XQWHU
VFKlW]W ZHUGHQ +lX¿J OHLGHQ 3DUWQHUVFKDIWHQ XQG GLH JDQ]H )DPLOLH XQWHU IDPLOLlUHQ
3ÀHJHIlOOHQ =HLW PLW GHP 3DUWQHU RGHU GHQ .LQGHUQ ]X YHUEULQJHQ NDQQ GXUFK $QJHERWH
SURIHVVLRQHOOHU XQG HKUHQDPWOLFKHU 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ XQWHUVWW]W ZHUGHQ 9RU DOOHP GLH EH
VRQGHUH %HDQVSUXFKXQJ YRQ 3ÀHJHSHUVRQHQ GLH GHPHQ]NUDQNH $QJHK|ULJH SÀHJHQ ¿Q
GHW LQ *HVHW]HVQRYHOOHQ XQG )|UGHUSURJUDPPHQ ] % =XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWW 'HPHQ] LKUHQ
1LHGHUVFKODJ 'LH VWDUNH ± RIW MDKUHODQJH ± %HODVWXQJ XQG GLH VSH]LHOOHQ %HGUIQLVVH GHU
'HPHQ]NUDQNHQ HUODXEHQ NDXP )UHL]HLWHQ 1XU VHOWHQ ZLUG +LOIH YRQ DX‰HQ LQ $QVSUXFK
JHQRPPHQ ZHLO 'HPHQ]NUDQNH DXI bQGHUXQJHQ QXU VFKOHFKW HLQJHKHQ N|QQHQ XQG 3ÀH
JHQGH GLH ,QDQVSUXFKQDKPH DOV (LQJHVWlQGQLV GHV 9HUVDJHQV LQWHUSUHWLHUHQ 1HXDUWLJH
$QJHERWH GLH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJHQ XQG LKUHQ $QJHK|ULJHQ (QWODVWXQJ EULQJHQ VROOHQ VLQG
EHWUHXWH 8UODXEH 'DV 2VWVHHEDG %ROWHQKDJHQ ELHWHW PLW GHU +RWHODQODJH Ä7DUQHZLW]HU
+RI³ $QJHK|ULJHQ NXU]H 0RPHQWH GHU (QWVSDQQXQJ KWWSZZZEHWUHXWHUXUODXEWDUQH
ZLW]GHKRPHKWPO
$XFK GLH $NWLYLHUXQJ IUHLZLOOLJHU +HOIHU LVW HLQH 2SWLRQ IDPLOLlUH XQG SURIHVVLRQHOOH
3ÀHJHNUlIWH ]X XQWHUVWW]HQ 'HU %XQGHVIUHLZLOOLJHQGLHQVW VWHOOW HLQH GLHVHU 0|JOLFKNHL
WHQ GDU DEHU DXFK HKUHQDPWOLFKHV (QJDJHPHQW YRQ 6HQLRUHQ NDQQ HLQH (QWODVWXQJ GHU
]XP 7HLO GUDPDWLVFKHQ 3ÀHJHVLWXDWLRQ GDUVWHOOHQ „Für den Bereich des bürgerschaftlichen Engagements ist festzustellen, dass ältere Menschen vor allem dann bereit sind,
verantwortliche Aufgaben innerhalb der Gesellschaft zu übernehmen, wenn sie davon
ausgehen, dass sie den zugehörigen Anforderungen auch auf Dauer gewachsen sind und
ihr Engagement von anderen in angemessener Weise nachgefragt und geschätzt wird.“
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6 'LH JU|‰
WHQ 5HVVRXUFHQ GHU bOWHUHQ IU GLH *HVHOOVFKDIW VLQG LKUH =HLW XQG LKUH (UIDKUXQJ %HLGHV
NDQQ VLQQYROO JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ LQGHP DWWUDNWLYH (KUHQDPWVVWUXNWXUHQ JHVFKDIIHQ ZHU
GHQ (V HQWVWHKHQ DXVVFKOLH‰OLFK :LQ:LQ6LWXDWLRQHQ VR]LDOH ,QWHJUDWLRQ XQG GDV JXWH
*HIKO HLQH VLQQYROOH 7lWLJNHLW DXV]XEHQ LQWHUJHQHUDWLYH .RQWDNWH XQG 8QWHUVWW]XQJ
VR]LDOHU (LQULFKWXQJHQ VLQG HLQLJH %HLVSLHOH 'LHV NDQQ YRU DOOHP LQ %HUHLFKHQ GHU $O
WHQSÀHJH JHVFKHKHQ (LQLJH 0RGHOOSURJUDPPH GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ VHW]WHQ VLFK ]XP
=LHO GDV EUJHUOLFKH (QJDJHPHQW YRU DOOHP bOWHUHU ]X I|UGHUQ 'D]X ]lKOW GDV %XQGHV
PRGHOOSURJUDPP Ä(UIDKUXQJVZLVVHQ IU ,QLWLDWLYHQ (),³ (LQ =LHO GHV 3URJUDPPHV LVW
GLH $XVELOGXQJ YRQ 6HQLRUWUDLQHU,QQHQ GLH ZLHGHUXP lOWHUHQ 0HQVFKHQ )RUPHQ GHU 7HLO
KDEH DXFK HKUHQDPWOLFKH QlKHU EULQJHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ
)UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 'LH (LQULFKWXQJ YRQ $QODXIVWHOOHQ IU PRWLYLHUWH XQG
HQJDJLHUWH 6HQLRUHQ ] % LQ )RUP YRQ 6HQLRUHQEURV LVW HLQH *UXQGYRUDXVVHW]XQJ IU
GHQ %HJLQQ HLQHU HKUHQDPWOLFKHQ 7lWLJNHLW GD YLHOHQ 0HQVFKHQ GLH 2ULHQWLHUXQJ IHKOW
VLH QLFKW ZLVVHQ DQ ZHQ VLH VLFK ZHQGHQ N|QQHQ 'LH EHUHLWV YRUJHVWHOOWHQ 0HKUJHQHUDWL
RQHQKlXVHU RGHU PXOWLSOHQ +lXVHU ZlUHQ HLQH P|JOLFKH $QODXIVWHOOH IU ,QWHUHVVLHUWH XQG
83
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
N|QQWHQ DXFK DOV 2UW JHPHLQVDPHU $NWLYLWlWHQ JHQXW]W ZHUGHQ
9RU DOOHP LP %HUHLFK GHU $OWHQSÀHJH XQG YHUVRUJXQJ ZHUGHQ NQIWLJ GLH 8QWHUVWW
]XQJVOHLVWXQJHQ HKUHQDPWOLFK WlWLJHU lOWHUHU 0HQVFKHQ EHQ|WLJW ZHUGHQ DXIJUXQG GHV
VWHLJHQGHQ 3ÀHJHEHGDUIV XQG GHU VLFK lQGHUQGHQ )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ +LHUEHL VWHKHQ SÀH
JHULVFKH /HLVWXQJHQ QLFKW XQEHGLQJW LP 0LWWHOSXQNW 2IWPDOV JHQJHQ *HVSUlFKH RGHU
JHPHLQVDPH $NWLYLWlWHQ ] % )HVWH XP GHQ $OOWDJ LQ VWDWLRQlUHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ OHEHQV
ZHUWHU ]X JHVWDOWHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG
6 ,Q GHQ OHW]WHQ -DKUHQ NRQQWH HLQ VWHWLJHU $QVWLHJ GHV HKUHQDPWOLFKHQ (QJDJHPHQWV GHU
bOWHUHQ IHVWJHVWHOOW ZHUGHQ -H QDFK 4XHOOHQ OLHJW GLH %HWHLOLJXQJ GHU ELV -lKULJHQ
EHL ELV ]X YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 I 'LHVHV 3RWHQ]LDO OLH‰H VLFK DXFK IU HKUHQDPWOLFKH 7lWLJNHLWHQ LQ VWDWLRQlUHQ
(LQULFKWXQJHQ QXW]HQ
'LH ]XQHKPHQGH JHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKH )RUGHUXQJ QDFK PHKU HKUHQDPWOLFKHU 7lWLJNHLW LQ GHU
1DFKHUZHUEVSKDVH NRPPW DEHU DXFK DQ LKUH *UHQ]HQ 0HQVFKHQ GLH YRQ $OWHUVDUPXW
EHGURKW VLQG RGHU EHUHLWV LQ LKU OHEHQ LPPRELOH RGHU IDPLOLlU VHKU HLQJHEXQGHQH bOWHUH
VLQG DOV =LHOJUXSSH VFKZHU ]X HUUHLFKHQ 6LH VWHOOHQ EHUHFKWLJW GLH )UDJH :DV KDEH LFK
YRQ PHLQHP (QJDJHPHQW" ± +LHU LVW HV =HLW LQ 'HXWVFKODQG QHXH :HJH ]X JHKHQ %HL
VSLHOH ZLH Ä:RKQHQ IU +LOIH³ GDV 6\VWHP GHU =HLWUHQWHQ RGHU GHV 6R]LDOJHOGHV UHQWLHUHQ
VLFK IU DOOH %HWHLOLJWHQ ± DXFK ZLUWVFKDIWOLFK ± XQG EDXHQ HLQ YRP *HQHUDWLRQHQYHU
WUDJ XQG YRQ IDPLOLlUHQ 8QWHUVWW]XQJVV\VWHPHQ HQWNRSSHOWHV 6ROLGDUV\VWHP DXI DXI GDV
'HXWVFKODQG LQ GHQ QlFKVWHQ -DKU]HKQWHQ QLFKW ZLUG YHU]LFKWHQ N|QQHQ
%HGDUIVJHUHFKWHU 5FN XQG 8PEDX YRQ 6WlGWHQ XQG '|UIHUQ
9LHOH YRU DOOHP OlQGOLFKH 5HJLRQHQ VLQG EHVRQGHUV EHWURIIHQ YRP %HY|ONHUXQJVUFNJDQJ
DOV )ROJH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV 6R ZLUG EHLVSLHOVZHLVH 0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRP
PHUQ LP -DKU (LQZRKQHU ]lKOHQ ZDV HLQHQ 5FNJDQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ
JHJHQEHU GHP -DKU XP IDVW EHGHXWHW 6WDWLVWLVFKHV $PW 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ 6 $OV )ROJH ZHUGHQ '|UIHU XQG 6WlGWH ÄHQWY|ONHUW³ 6WUDWHJLHQ
GHP ]X EHJHJQHQ VLQG .RQ]HSWH ]XP EHGDUIVJHUHFKWHQ :RKQXQJVUFNEDX RGHU LQ $XV
QDKPHIlOOHQ (QWVLHGOXQJHQ XQG DQVFKOLH‰HQGH 5HQDWXULHUXQJ GHU *HPHLQGHÀlFKHQ 'LH
.RQ]HQWUDWLRQ DXI HLQ GH¿QLHUWHV IXQNWLRQLHUHQGHV 2UWV]HQWUXP VROOWH MHGRFK YRU GLHVHU
5DGLNDOO|VXQJ VWHKHQ GHQQ GLH 0HQVFKHQ YHUEOHLEHQ DP OLHEVWHQ ± DXFK LP KRKHQ $OWHUQ
± LP JHZRKQWHQ /HEHQVXPIHOG „Aller Erfahrung nach ist es sinnvoll, den Rückbau von
den Stadträndern nach innen zu organisieren und kein Geld in die Sanierung von Außenbezirken zu stecken.“ YJO .U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6 2E GLH (UULFKWXQJ
NRPSOHWWHU 6HQLRUHQVWlGWH ZLH VLH LP VRQQLJHQ 6GHQ GHU 86$ ± GDKHU GHU 1DPH 6XQ
&LW\ ± H[LVWLHUHQ DXFK IU 'HXWVFKODQG P|JOLFK XQG VLQQYROO LVW PXVV XQWHUVXFKW ZHU
GHQ *HQHUHOO VROOWH GHU 8PEDX YRQ %HVWDQGVVWUXNWXUHQ YRU GHP 1HXEDX YRQ 6LHGOXQJHQ
84
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
9RUUDQJ KDEHQ 9RUOLHJHQGH 6WUXNWXUHQ XQG UlXPOLFKH *HJHEHQKHLWHQ VSUHFKHQ ]XGHP
IU 6FKZLHULJNHLWHQ EHL GHU 8PVHW]XQJ 'HQQRFK HQWVWHKHQ HUVWH ,GHHQ Ä6HQLRUHQYLHU
WHO³ LQ '|UIHU RGHU 6WlGWH ]X LQWHJULHUHQ GLH GHQ VSH]LHOOHQ %HGUIQLVVHQ GHU DOWHUQGHQ
%HY|ONHUXQJ HQWVSUHFKHQ (LQHV GLHVHU .RQ]HSWH LVW GDV JHQDQQWH 0RGHOOYRUKDEHQ Ä'RUI
LP 'RUI³ LP .ORVWHUGRUI 'REEHUWLQ0HFNOHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ .DSLWHO 'LHVHV
.RQ]HSW NDQQ XQG VROOWH DXI ZHLWHUH '|UIHU XQG 6WlGWH DQJHZHQGHW ZHUGHQ GD DXI GLH
VHP :HJ GHUHQ $WWUDNWLYLWlW VWHLJW XQG PDQ GHQ %HGUIQLVVHQ HLQHU lOWHU ZHUGHQGHQ *H
VHOOVFKDIW JHUHFKW ZLUG
$OWHU  .UDQNKHLW *HVXQGKHLWVYHUKDOWHQ I|UGHUQ
7URW] =XQDKPH YRQ *HVXQGKHLWVSUREOHPHQ LP $OWHU ZLUG HLQ *UR‰WHLO GLHVHU /HEHQV
SKDVH EHL JXWHU *HVXQGKHLW YHUEUDFKW 8PZHOW /HEHQV $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ XQG /H
EHQVVWLOH YRU DOOHP (UQlKUXQJ 6SRUW .RQVXP YRQ $ONRKRO RGHU 7DEDN KDEHQ $XVZLU
NXQJHQ DXI GHQ *HVXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG 'LHVHU 7DWVDFKH VROOWH VLFK MHGHU EHZXVVW VHLQ XQG
GXUFK 1XW]XQJ YRQ 3UlYHQWLRQVP|JOLFKNHLWHQ ]X HLQHP /HEHQ PLW OlQJHUHU *HVXQGKHLW
EHLWUDJHQ 1HEHQ GHP *HZLQQ DQ ]XVlW]OLFKHU /HEHQVTXDOLWlW XQG OlQJHUHU *HVXQGKHLW
VLQG .RVWHQHLQVSDUXQJHQ DXIJUXQG ZHQLJHU DQJHZHQGHWHU 7KHUDSLHQ GLH )ROJH „Theoretisch werden die Einsparpotenziale in Deutschland durch eine langfristig angelegte
Prävention auf bis zu 30 % der heutigen Gesundheitskosten geschätzt […].“ 'HXWVFKHU
%XQGHVWDJ 6 'XUFK IUK HLQVHW]HQGH 3UlYHQWLRQVSURJUDPPH NDQQ GLH :DKU
VFKHLQOLFKNHLW FKURQLVFKHU (UNUDQNXQJHQ GLH EHVRQGHUV NRVWHQLQWHQVLY VLQG JHVHQNW
ZHUGHQ „Durch eine bessere Ernährung, Tabakabstinenz und die Vermeidung von Übergewicht wird das Risiko für Herzkreislauf- und Tumorerkrankungen sowie Erkrankungen der Atemwege, der Verdauungsorgane und des Muskel-Skelett-Systems reduziert.“
'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 %HUHLWV EHVWHKHQGH 3URJUDPPH PVVHQ LQWHQVLYHU
EHZRUEHQ ] % YRQ +DXVlU]WHQ ZHUGHQ
7.4 Arbeitsmarkt und Flexibilisierung des Renteneintrittsalters
,P -DKU ZDUHQ 0HQVFKHQ EHU -DKUHQ HUZHUEVWlWLJ GDV HQWVSULFKW
GHU $OWHUVJUXSSH ]ZLVFKHQ ELV YJO 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 6
(LQH +HUDXIVHW]XQJ GHV 5HQWHQHLQWULWWVDOWHUV GLHQWH ]XP JHJHEHQHQ =HLWSXQNW DOVR
YRUUDQJLJ GHU (QWODVWXQJ GHU 5HQWHQNDVVHQ DOV GHU 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU 8QWHUQHKPHQ PLW
HUIDKUHQHQ $UEHLWQHKPHUQ ]XU 'HFNXQJ GHV )DFKNUlIWHEHGDUIV 1RFK HQWGHFNW GHU $U
EHLWVPDUNW GLH =LHOJUXSSH QXU VHKU ]|JHUOLFK IU VLFK 8QWHUQHKPHQ VROOWHQ GLH )l
KLJNHLWHQ lOWHUHU 0LWDUEHLWHU VFKlW]HQ XQG $UEHLWV]HLWPRGHOOH $UEHLWVSODW]DXVVWDWWXQJHQ
XQGRGHU $VVLVWHQ]V\VWHPH HWDEOLHUHQ XP lOWHUH 0LWDUEHLWHU LQ GHQ 8QWHUQHKPHQ ]X KDO
WHQ 'DV %HZXVVWVHLQ EHU GLHVHQ =XJHZLQQ IU EHLGH 6HLWHQ ZLUG PLW GHP VWHLJHQGHQ
5LVLNR YRQ $OWHUVDUPXW JUR‰HU 7HLOH XQVHUHU *HVHOOVFKDIW DXFK DOV LQGLYLGXHOOHU ([LVWHQ]
VLFKHUXQJVIDNWRU XQG DOV (QWODVWXQJ GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH ]XQHKPHQG ZLFKWLJ
85
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
1LFKW ZHQLJH GHU 5HQWQHU IDOOHQ PLW GHP $XVWULWW DXV GHU (UZHUEVDUEHLW LQ HLQ ¿QDQ]LHOOHV
XQG HPRWLRQDOHV /RFK Ä3HQVLRQLHUXQJVVFKRFN³ GD LKU ELVKHULJHV /HEHQ VWDUN DQ GHU
(UZHUEVDUEHLW DXVJHULFKWHW ZDU XQG HLQ :HJIDOOHQ HLQHQ JUDYLHUHQGHQ (LQVFKQLWW EHGHXWHW
YJO %DFNHV&OHPHQV 6 II
'LH PLWWOHUZHLOH DXI -DKUH DQJHKREHQH 5HQWHQHLQWULWWVJUHQ]H EHGHXWHW HLQH (QWODVWXQJ
GHU VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH /lQJHU DUEHLWHQ OlQJHU HLQ]DKOHQ 'D YLHOH bOWHUH DEHU
DXFK QRFK EHU KLQDXV OHLVWXQJVIlKLJ XQG JHVXQG VLQG VROOWH HLQH ÀH[LEOH $OWHUVJUHQ]H
HUP|JOLFKW ZHUGHQ )OH[LEHO XQG EHUXIVDEKlQJLJ ODXWHQ GLH 6WLFKZ|UWHU GHQQ YRU DOOHP
N|USHUOLFK VFKZHU DUEHLWHQGH 0HQVFKHQ VROOWHQ EHL %HGDUI DXFK LQ MQJHUHQ -DKUHQ RKQH
$E]JH LQ 5HQWH JHKHQ N|QQHQ 'LH $XVZLUNXQJHQ HLQHU N|USHUOLFK VWDUN EHDQVSUXFKHQ
GHQ $UEHLW DXI GLH *HVXQGKHLW VLQG EHZLHVHQ XQG VROOWHQ %HUFNVLFKWLJXQJ ¿QGHQ YJO
.U|KQHUW2OVW.OLQJKRO] 6 (LQ 0RGHOO ]XU ÀH[LEOHQ 5HQWHQJUHQ]H VWDPPW
YRQ $[HO %|UVFK6XSDQ GHU YRUVFKOlJW „[…] die hinzukommenden Lebensjahre nach einem festen Verhältnis auf Arbeits- und Pensionszeit [zu] verteilen. Rechenbeispiel: Wählte man die heutige Aufteilung von etwa 2:1 bei einer konservativ geschätzten Steigerung
der Lebenserwartung von zwei Jahren pro Jahrzehnt, so läge das Renteneintrittsalter
2030 bei 67 Jahren und acht Monaten und 2050 bereits bei 70 Jahren und vier Monaten.“ 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 I 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 EHVFKUHLEHQ
QRFK HLQHQ DQGHUHQ :HJ GHQ GHU 8PYHUWHLOXQJ GHU $UEHLW EHU GLH /HEHQVSKDVHQ „Es
würde ausreichen, wenn alle im Alter von 20 bis 65 nur 25 Stunden pro Woche arbeiteten – vorausgesetzt, Menschen bis 70 Jahre beteiligten sich auch zu einem kleineren
Teil.“ 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 'LH 8PVHW]XQJ LVW LQ )RUP YRQ /HEHQVDUEHLWV]HLW
NRQWHQ P|JOLFK ZREHL GLH ELVKHULJHQ /HEHQVSKDVHQ 9RUEHUHLWXQJVSKDVH (UZHUEVSKDVH
XQG 5XKHVWDQG DXIJHEURFKHQ XQG YHUPLVFKW ZHUGHQ ZUGHQ 9RQ DQGHUHQ $XWRUHQ ZLUG
GLHVHV 3ULQ]LS DXFK DOV /HEHQVDUEHLWV]HLWJHVWDOWXQJ EHVFKULHEHQ /HUQHQ ZUGH PDQ OH
EHQVODQJ MH QDFKGHP ZLH GLH $QIRUGHUXQJHQ GHU MHZHLOLJHQ $UEHLWVVWHOOH DXVVHKHQ (QW
VFKHLGHQ VLFK 3DDUH IU GLH )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ N|QQHQ VLH VR ODQJH ]X +DXVH EOHLEHQ ZLH
VLH HV IU VLQQYROO XQG LQ GHU 6LWXDWLRQ DQJHPHVVHQ KDOWHQ GHQQ GLH -DKUH N|QQHQ ÄQDFK
JHDUEHLWHW³ ZHUGHQ 6R KlWWH PDQ =HLW IU GLH (U]LHKXQJ GHU .LQGHU ZHQQ VLH EHQ|WLJW
ZLUG XQG QLFKW PLW ZHQQ GLH .LQGHU OlQJVW LKU HLJHQHV /HEHQ IKUHQ (V ZLUG YHUPX
WHW GDVV GLHVH )RUP GHU $UEHLWV]HLWJHVWDOWXQJ GLH 3URGXNWLYLWlW 0LWDUEHLWHU]XIULHGHQKHLW
XQG 0RWLYDWLRQ HUK|KW „Bei der praktischen Umsetzung sind neben den betrieblichen
Implementierungsproblemen insbesondere die Konsequenzen für die individuelle soziale
Sicherung in der Diskussion; letzteres vor allem wegen der traditionell engen Verknüpfung von sozialer Sicherung und (möglichst) lebenslanger bzw. vollkontinuierlicher Erwerbsarbeit.“ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 )U GLH 8PVHW]XQJ GLHVHV 0RGHOOV PVVHQ YHUPHKUW 7HLO]HLWMREV DQJHERWHQ ZHU
GHQ XQG $UEHLWJHEHU ÀH[LEOHU DXI $UEHLWV]HLWZQVFKH UHDJLHUHQ (V ZUGH DEHU VRZRKO
GLH )DPLOLHQJUQGXQJ HUOHLFKWHUQ DOV DXFK GLH 3RWHQ]LDOH GHU lOWHUHQ %HY|ONHUXQJ QXW]HQ
YJO 6FKZHQWNHU9DXSHO 6 'LHVHV 0RGHOO HQWVSUlFKH HLQHU DOWHUQVJHUHFKWHQ
$UEHLWV]HLWSROLWLN YJO 6HLIHUW 6 I $OWHUVJHUHFKWH $UEHLWV]HLWSROLWLN ZLHGHU
XP ULFKWHW VLFK YHUPHKUW QDFK GHQ :QVFKHQ lOWHUHU $UEHLWQHKPHU %HLGH $QVlW]H N|Q
QHQ PLWHLQDQGHU NRPELQLHUW ZHUGHQ YJO 6HLIHUW 6 'HU $OWHQEHULFKW GHU
%XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 86
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
6 IRUPXOLHUW HEHQIDOOV +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ ]XU /HEHQVDUEHLWV]HLW GHQHQ DEHU
NHLQH SROLWLVFKHQ .RQVHTXHQ]HQ E]Z 8PVHW]XQJVVWUDWHJLHQ IROJHQ
:LH LQ .DSLWHO HUZlKQW ZXUGH KDEHQ HLQLJH 8QWHUQHKPHQ )DKULRQ 'DLPOHU%HQ]
$* GLH 9RUWHLOH lOWHUHU %HVFKlIWLJWHU HUNDQQW XQG HLQH DOWHUVJHUHFKWH 3HUVRQDOSODQXQJ
XQG %HVFKlIWLJXQJVSROLWLN HLQJHIKUW $OOHUGLQJV NDQQ GLHV QXU IU VHKU JXW TXDOL¿]LHUWH
$QJHVWHOOWH QDFKJHZLHVHQ ZHUGHQ (UIRUGHUOLFK ZlUHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ GLH GLH %HVFKlIWL
JXQJ bOWHUHU PLW PLWWOHUHP RGHU JHULQJHP 4XDOL¿NDWLRQVQLYHDX I|UGHUQ YJO %XQGHVPL
QLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6 I $XFK GLH 'HPR
JUD¿HVWUDWHJLH GHU %XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ VLHKW HLQH (UK|KXQJ GHU (UZHUEVEHWHLOLJXQJ bOWHUHU
DOV HLQ =LHO DQ GD lOWHUH %HVFKlIWLJWH PRWLYLHUW XQG OHLVWXQJVIlKLJ VLQG XQG &KDQFHQ ]XU
0LWJHVWDOWXQJ JHUQ QXW]HQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 $QSDVVXQ
JHQ GHV $UEHLWVSODW]HV DQ (UIRUGHUQLVVH lOWHUHU %HVFKlIWLJWHU VLQG KLHU]X XQDEGLQJEDU ,P
5DKPHQ GHU EHWULHEOLFKHQ *HVXQGKHLWVSROLWLN VROOHQ X D 0D‰QDKPHQ ]XU *HVXQGKHLWV
I|UGHUXQJ JHWURIIHQ ZHUGHQ GDPLW QLFKW QXU lOWHUH 0LWDUEHLWHU OHLVWXQJVIlKLJ EOHLEHQ
'LHV NDQQ JHVFKHKHQ GXUFK HLQH DOWHUVJHUHFKWH $UEHLWVSODW]JHVWDOWXQJ $UEHLWV]HLWDQSDV
VXQJ (UP|JOLFKXQJ YRQ *UXSSHQDUEHLW RGHU GLH 8PVWUXNWXULHUXQJ YRQ $UEHLWVDXIJDEHQ
YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG 6 2SWLPLHUXQJ GHU %HGDUIVSODQXQJ XQG GHU 9HUVRUJXQJVVWUXNWXUHQ
'LH LQ GLHVHU $UEHLW KHUDXVJHVWHOOWH 3UREOHPDWLN GHU ]X JUR‰HQ 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH GLH HLQH
RSWLPDOH 9HUVRUJXQJ VXJJHULHUHQ WDWVlFKOLFK MHGRFK ]XU 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ LQ EHVWLPP
WHQ *HELHWHQ GHV 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKHV IKUHQ PXVV HQWJHJHQ JHZLUNW ZHUGHQ GXUFK HLQH
NOHLQUlXPLJH XQG UHJLRQDO GLIIHUHQ]LHUWH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ %LVODQJ HQWVSUHFKHQ GLH 3ODQXQJVEHUHLFKH XQJHIlKU GHQ .UHLVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 'DEHL NRQ]HQWULHUHQ VLFK YLHOH
bU]WH LQ GHQ JU|‰HUHQ 6WlGWHQ ZlKUHQG GLH XPOLHJHQGHQ *HPHLQGHQ NHLQH bU]WH PHKU
KDEHQ XQG %HZRKQHU ODQJH )DKUZHJH DXI VLFK QHKPHQ PVVHQ 'LH %HVFKUHLEXQJ GHU
9HUVRUJXQJVVLWXDWLRQ XQG GLH 'DUOHJXQJ GHV GURKHQGHQ bU]WHPDQJHOV LQ 0HFNOHQEXUJ
9RUSRPPHUQ XQG YLHOHQ ZHLWHUHQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5HJLRQHQ YHUGHXWOLFKW GDVV KLHU DNXWHU
+DQGOXQJVEHGDUI EHVWHKW GHU ]XP 7HLO EHUHLWV YRQ GHQ *HVHW]JHEHUQ DOV VROFKHU HUNDQQW
ZXUGH 6R ZXUGHQ GXUFK GDV 9HUWUDJVlQGHUXQJVJHVHW] 9bQG* 7HLO]XODVVXQJHQ HUP|J
OLFKW GLH HV GHQ bU]WHQ HUODXEHQ VRZRKO LP DPEXODQWHQ DOV DXFK VWDWLRQlUHQ %HUHLFK ]X
DUEHLWHQ 'LHV ZLUNW GHP bU]WHPDQJHO HQWJHJHQ XQG VRUJW IU HLQH EHVVHUH 9HU]DKQXQJ
GHV DPEXODQWHQ XQG VWDWLRQlUHQ 6HNWRUV 'DV *HVHW] ]XU :HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJ GHU 2UJDQL
VDWLRQVVWUXNWXUHQ LQ GHU JHVHW]OLFKHQ .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ *.92UJ:* KRE GLH $O
WHUVJUHQ]H IU 9HUWUDJVlU]WH DXI ZDV GLHVHQ HUODXEWH OlQJHU ]X SUDNWL]LHUHQ DOV ELV ]XP
$OWHU YRQ -DKUHQ YJO :HVVHOV 6 'DUEHU KLQDXV VROOWH HV LQ HUK|KWHP 0D‰
P|JOLFK VHLQ GDVV .UDQNHQKlXVHU GLH )DFKDU]WYHUVRUJXQJ IU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJ DQELHWHQ
GUIHQ +LHUGXUFK ZlUH GLH IDFKlU]WOLFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ JHVLFKHUW :HLWHUH 0D‰QDKPHQ ]XU
$EVLFKHUXQJ GHU YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ VLQG 8PVDW]JDUDQWLHQ IU $U]WSUD[HQ GLH
YRQ GHQ .DVVHQlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUHLQLJXQJHQ DXVJHVSURFKHQ ZHUGHQ N|QQHQ XQG 'DUOHKHQ
IU 3UD[LVQHXJUQGXQJHQ LQ VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKHQ *HELHWHQ 'LH .9Q N|QQHQ LP 5DKPHQ
87
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
GHU 6LFKHUVWHOOXQJ GHU YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ GLHVH 0D‰QDKPHQ HUJUHLIHQ JHPl‰
† $EV 6*% 9 YJO %HLYHUV0LQDUW] 6 8P GHP 3UREOHP GHU )HKODOOR
NDWLRQ ]X EHJHJQHQ NDQQ GLH =XODVVXQJ LQ HLQHP EHUYHUVRUJWHQ %HUHLFK DEJHOHKQW ZHU
GHQ :HLWHUKLQ EHVWHKW GLH 0|JOLFKNHLW GDVV NOHLQH .UDQNHQKlXVHU LP OlQGOLFKHQ 5DXP
„[…] in ein Gesamtsystem mit poliklinischer Struktur umgewidmet werden.“ %HLYHUV
0LQDUW] 6 (LQ]HOQH $EWHLOXQJHQ EOHLEHQ HUKDOWHQ XQG GDUEHU KLQDXV ZLUG ]
% HLQH FKLUXUJLVFKH $PEXODQ] HLQJHULFKWHW XQG HLQ +DXVDU]W DQJHVWHOOW
8P bU]WHQ HLQH 1LHGHUODVVXQJ ÄDXI GHP /DQG³ XQG LQ VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKHQ 5HJLRQHQ DW
WUDNWLYHU ]X JHVWDOWHQ ZXUGHQ PLW GHP *.9:HWWEHZHUEVVWlUNXQJVJHVHW] +RQRUDU]X
VFKOlJH E]Z +RQRUDUDEVFKOlJH DXI GHQ 2ULHQWLHUXQJVZHUW16 HLQJHIKUW MHGRFK NRQQWHQ
GLHVH ¿QDQ]LHOOHQ $QUHL]H ODQJIULVWLJ QLFKW GHQ JHZQVFKWHQ (UIROJ YRUZHLVHQ YJO %HL
YHUV0LQDUW] 6 'DV 9bQG* VWHOOW HLQHQ HUVWHQ $QVDW] GDU EHLGH 6HNWRUHQ PLWHLQDQGHU ]X YHUELQGHQ LQ
GHP bU]WH VRZRKO LP .UDQNHQKDXV WlWLJ VHLQ GUIHQ DOV DXFK 3UD[HQ DQ YHUVFKLHGHQHQ
7DJHQ GHU :RFKH LQ GHU 5HJLRQ XQWHUKDOWHQ N|QQHQ 7HLO]XODVVXQJHQ +LHU]X N|QQWHQ
PXOWLSOH +lXVHU GHU LGHDOH $QODXISXQNW LQ )RUP GHU =XUYHUIJXQJVWHOOXQJ YRQ 3UD[LV
UlXPHQ VHLQ $Q GHQ 7DJHQ GLH GHU $U]W VHLQHQ 'LHQVW LP .UDQNHQKDXV DEOHLVWHW N|QQWHQ
*HPHLQGHVFKZHVWHUQ GLH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU %UJHU EHUQHKPHQ XQG LQ NULWLVFKHQ )lOOHQ
SHU 7HOHPHGL]LQ .RQWDNW ]XP $U]W DXIQHKPHQ RGHU GLH )lOOH IU GHQ 3UD[LVWDJ GHV $U]
WHV YRUPHUNHQ 'DV 0RGHOOSURJUDPP )217$1( WHVWHW LQ GHU 5HJLRQ 1RUGEUDQGHQEXUJ
WHOHPHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJVNRQ]HSWH GLH HLQH PHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ HUP|JOLFKHQ
DXFK ZHQQ GHU $U]W QLFKW YRU 2UW LVW
(LQ ZHLWHUHU 9RUWHLO GHU 7lWLJNHLW HLQHV $U]WHV LP .UDQNHQKDXV XQG HLJHQHU 3UD[LV LVW GHU
GDVV GHUVHOEH $U]W GLH (LQZHLVXQJ XQG %HKDQGOXQJ LP .UDQNHQKDXV EHUQHKPHQ NDQQ
7HLO]HLWDQVWHOOXQJHQ LQ 0HGL]LQLVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ NRPPHQ HEHQIDOOV bU]WHQ ±
YRU DOOHP bU]WLQQHQ ± ]X *XWH GD VLH ÀH[LEOHUH %HUXIV XQG $UEHLWVEHGLQJXQJHQ ELHWHQ
'LH VWULNWH 7UHQQXQJ GHV DPEXODQWHQ XQG VWDWLRQlUHQ 6HNWRUV IKUW ]X HLQHP HUVFKZHUWHQ
,QIRUPDWLRQVDXVWDXVFK XQWHU GHP EHVRQGHUV FKURQLVFK NUDQNH 3DWLHQWHQ OHLGHQ 'HUHQ
%HKDQGOXQJ HUIRUGHUW HLQHQ KlX¿JHQ :HFKVHO ]ZLVFKHQ GHQ 6HNWRUHQ GLHVHU KDW „[…]
sich dabei sowohl für die Patientinnen und Patienten als auch für die Behandelnden
oft als unangenehm, unzweckmäßig und für das Gesundheitssystem nicht selten als unwirtschaftlich erwiesen.“ 'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6 %LVKHU NRQQWH NHLQH Àl
FKHQGHFNHQGH /|VXQJ GLHVHV 3UREOHPV JHIXQGHQ ZHUGHQ DXFK ZHQQ GLH 0|JOLFKNHLW
YRQ bU]WHQ VRZRKO DPEXODQW DOV DXFK VWDWLRQlU WlWLJ ]X VHLQ HLQ 6FKULWW ]XU 9HU]DKQXQJ
EHLGHU 6HNWRUHQ GDUVWHOOW *HQHUHOO VROOWH HLQH YHUEHVVHUWH .RRUGLQDWLRQ XQG .RRSHUDWLRQ
]ZLVFKHQ (LQULFKWXQJHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWV XQG 3ÀHJHEHUHLFKV DQJHVWUHEW ZHUGHQ
16 „Mit der Honorarreform 2009 ist in der vertragsärztlichen Vergütung ein bundesweiter Orientierungswert eingeführt worden, den der Bewertungsausschuss von Kassenärztlicher Bundesvereinigung und
GKV-Spitzenverband jeweils bis zum 31. August eines Jahres für das Folgejahr festlegt. Auf der Basis des
Orientierungswertes legen Kassenärztliche Vereinigungen und Krankenkassen die regionale Euro-Gebührenordnung fest.“ KWWSZZZDRNEYGHOH[LNRQRLQGH[BKWPO
88
:DV NDQQ QRFK JHWDQ ZHUGHQ" ± +DQGOXQJVHPSIHKOXQJHQ
9HUVRUJXQJVDXIJDEHQ N|QQHQ GHPQDFK QLFKW QXU YRQ *HPHLQGHVFKZHVWHUQ VRQGHUQ DXFK
YRQ 9HUWUHWHUQ DQGHUHU *HVXQGKHLWVEHUXIH EHUQRPPHQ ZHUGHQ 'LH (LQULFKWXQJ 0HGL]L
QLVFKHU 9HUVRUJXQJV]HQWUHQ GLH GHP 9RUELOG GHU 3ROLNOLQLN IROJHQ XQG GXUFK GDV *.9
0RGHUQLVLHUXQJVJHVHW] *0* HUP|JOLFKW ZXUGHQ NDQQ DOV HLQ ZHVHQWOLFKHU 6FKULWW ]XU
.RRSHUDWLRQ YHUVFKLHGHQHU PHGL]LQLVFKHU %HUXIVJUXSSHQ DQJHVHKHQ ZHUGHQ XQG GLHQW
JOHLFK]HLWLJ DOV JDQ]KHLWOLFKH DPEXODQWH 9HUVRUJXQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ .RRSHUDWLRQHQ XQ
WHU bU]WHQ YHUVFKLHGHQVWHU )DFKULFKWXQJHQ N|QQHQ GLH %HKDQGOXQJ YHUNU]HQ XQG HLQHQ
.UDQNHQKDXVDXIHQWKDOW XQWHU 8PVWlQGHQ YHUKLQGHUQ
'DUEHU KLQDXV ZLUG HV HUIRUGHUOLFK VHLQ GXUFK GLH =XQDKPH DOWHUVEHGLQJWHU (UNUDQNXQ
JHQ GLH PHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ PLW GHU SÀHJHULVFKHQ ]X YHUELQGHQ YJO %XQGHVPL
QLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 3UlYHQWLRQ %HKDQGOXQJ 5HKDELOLWDWLRQ XQG 3ÀHJH ]
7 YHURUWHW LQ HLQHU (LQULFKWXQJ XQG NRRUGLQLHUW YRQ HLQHP EHKDQGHOQGHQ $U]W ZlUHQ GDV
=LHO ZHOFKHV HV ]X HUUHLFKHQ JLOW $XFK ZHQQ HLQ VWDWLRQlUHU $XIHQWKDOW QRWZHQGLJ ZLUG
VROOWHQ GLH $EVWLPPXQJVSUR]HVVH YHUHLQIDFKW ZHUGHQ VRGDVV EHODVWHQGH XQG WHXUH 'RS
SHOXQWHUVXFKXQJHQ HQWIDOOHQ $XFK GHU hEHUJDQJ ] % YRP .UDQNHQKDXV LQ GLH VWDWLRQlUH
RGHU DPEXODQWH 3ÀHJH VROO GXUFK GDV PLW GHP *.9:6* XQG GHU 3ÀHJHUHIRUP HLQ
JHIKUWHQ (QWODVVXQJVPDQDJHPHQW HUOHLFKWHUW ZHUGHQ 'LH .RQWDNWDXIQDKPH ]ZLVFKHQ
.UDQNHQKDXV XQG 3ÀHJHHLQULFKWXQJ XQWHUVWW]W $QJHK|ULJH XQG 3DWLHQWHQ XQG IKUW ]X
HLQHP QDKWORVHQ hEHUJDQJ GHU %HKDQGOXQJVIROJH RKQH :DUWH]HLWHQ YJO %XQGHVPLQLVWH
ULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 6 /HW]WHQGOLFK VROOWHQ DOOH *HPHLQGHQ XQG 6WlGWH LQ 'HXWVFKODQG DOOH SODQHULVFKHQ XQG
ZLUWVFKDIWOLFKHQ 0|JOLFKNHLWHQ QXW]HQ HLQH ÀlFKHQGHFNHQGH PHGL]LQLVFKH 9HUVRUJXQJ
EHUHLW ]X VWHOOHQ GD GLHVH HLQ HQWVFKHLGHQGHV .ULWHULXP IU GLH $WWUDNWLYLWlW GHU 5HJLRQ
GDUVWHOOW
89
)D]LW
8. Fazit
„Altern ist bis jetzt das einzige Mittel, das man gefunden hat, um länger zu leben.“
&KDUOHV$XJXVW 6DLQWH%HXYH ,Q GLHVHU $UEHLW ZXUGHQ GLH )DNWRUHQ GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV LQ GHU %XQGHVUHSXEOLN
'HXWVFKODQG GDUJHVWHOOW ,P )RNXV GHU %HWUDFKWXQJHQ VWDQGHQ GLH HWDEOLHUWHQ 6WUXNWXUHQ
GHV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHPV GLH =XVWlQGLJNHLWHQ DXI %XQGHV /DQGHV XQG LQVWLWXWLRQHOOHU
(EHQH ,QZLHIHUQ GLH VLFK ZDQGHOQGHQ )DPLOLHQVWUXNWXUHQ GLH VWHWLJ VWHLJHQGH /HEHQV
HUZDUWXQJ GHU %HY|ONHUXQJ XQG GLH JHULQJH )HUWLOLWlWVUDWH WDWVlFKOLFK HLQHQ GURKHQGHQ
3ÀHJHQRWVWDQG XQG UHJLRQDOHQ bU]WHPDQJHO EHGLQJHQ ZXUGH XQWHUVXFKW
'LH EHUHLWV HLQJHWUHWHQHQ XQG DQWL]LSLHUWHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHU HLQ]HOQHQ )DNWRUHQ GHV GH
PRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV DXI GLH VR]LDOHQ 6LFKHUXQJVV\VWHPH GDV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP XQG
GLH UHJLRQDOH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH ZXUGHQ HEHQIDOOV EHVFKULHEHQ 'LH 'DUOHJXQJHQ ]HLJHQ
GDVV GHU GHPRJUD¿VFKH :DQGHO QLFKW QXU GLH %HY|ONHUXQJVS\UDPLGH I|UPOLFK ÄDXI GHQ
.RSI³ VWHOOW VRQGHUQ GDVV GLH )ROJHQ GHV :DQGHOV 'HXWVFKODQG XQG YRU DOOHP 0HFN
OHQEXUJ9RUSRPPHUQ YRU HQRUPH $XIJDEHQ VWHOOHQ 6WlGWH *HPHLQGHQ XQG GHU %XQG
ZHUGHQ JHPHLQVDP DJLHUHQ PVVHQ XP GHQ +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ LQ VlPWOLFKHQ %HUHLFKHQ
ZLUNXQJVYROO XQG QDFKKDOWLJ EHJHJQHQ ]X N|QQHQ 'LH EHVFKULHEHQHQ 0D‰QDKPHQ GHU
%XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ LP 8PJDQJ PLW GHQ $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHV :DQGHOV VWHOOHQ HUVWH 6FKULWWH
HUVWH 0RGHOOH DEHU QRFK NHLQHQ JDQ]KHLWOLFKHQ /|VXQJVDQVDW] GDU $XFK LP +DQGOXQJV
IHOG GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV ]HLJW VLFK GDVV HLQ]HOQH EHIULVWHWH 0RGHOOI|UGHUXQJHQ
HLQH YHUOlVVOLFKH 5HJHO¿QDQ]LHUXQJ GDXHUKDIWHU 6WUXNWXUHQ QLFKW HUVHW]HQ GUIHQ ZHLO
NXU]IULVWLJ IRUFLHUWH $NWLYLWlWHQ 3URMHNWH XQG DXIJHEDXWH 6WUXNWXUHQ QDFK $XVODXIHQ GHU
)|UGHUXQJ KlX¿J QLFKW YHUVWHWLJW ZHUGHQ 0RGHOOSURMHNWH VLQG DOV ,QQRYDWRU LQ (UJlQ
]XQJ ]XU 5HJHO¿QDQ]LHUXQJ XQG IU GHQ EXQGHVZHLWHQ :LVVHQVWUDQVIHU I|UGHUOLFK ZHQQ
GLH 9HUVWHWLJXQJ DXIJHEDXWHU 6WUXNWXUHQ 3URMHNW]LHO LVW
$OV HLQH EHVRQGHUH +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJ ZXUGH GLH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW YRQ 3HUVRQHQ PLW
QHXURGHJHQHUDWLYHQ (UNUDQNXQJHQ GDUJHVWHOOW 'D GHUHQ =DKO GXUFK GLH VWHLJHQGH /H
EHQVHUZDUWXQJ NQIWLJ ZHLWHU ]XQHKPHQ ZLUG LVW HLQH $QSDVVXQJ EHVWHKHQGHU 3ÀHJH
)LQDQ]LHUXQJV XQG 9HUVRUJXQJVWUXNWXUHQ ]ZLQJHQG Q|WLJ
$OV ([NXUV ZXUGHQ GLH 3RWHQ]LDOH GHV GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHOV EHWUDFKWHW +LHU OLHJW HV
VRZRKO LQ GHU SHUV|QOLFKHQ DOV DXFK LQ GHU JHVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHQ 9HUDQWZRUWXQJ GLH =X
NXQIW HLQHU LPPHU lOWHU ZHUGHQGHQ *HVHOOVFKDIW LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ¿QDQ]LHUEDU OHEHQVZHUW
XQG VR]LDO ]X JHVWDOWHQ :LH HUVWH +DQGOXQJVDQVlW]H JUHLIHQ XQG ZDV GDUEHU KLQDXV DQ
+DQGOXQJVRSWLRQHQ EHVWHKW EHVFKOLH‰W GLH YRUOLHJHQGH $UEHLW
90
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
$IHQWDNLV $QMD 0DLHU 7RELDV 3URMHNWLRQHQ GHV 3HUVRQDOEHGDUIV XQG ±DQJHERWV
LQ 3ÀHJHEHUXIHQ ELV ,Q 6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW :LUWVFKDIW XQG 6WDWLVWLN
:LHVEDGHQ 6 %DFNHV *HUWUXG 0 &OHPHQV :ROIJDQJ /HEHQVSKDVH $OWHU (LQH (LQIKUXQJ LQ
GLH VR]LDOZLVVHQVFKDIWOLFKH $OWHUVIRUVFKXQJ $XÀ :HLQKHLP XQG 0QFKHQ
%HFN 8OULFK%HFN*HUQVKHLP (OLVDEHWK ,QGLYLGXDOLVLHUXQJ LQ PRGHUQHQ
*HVHOOVFKDIWHQ3HUVSHNWLYHQ XQG .RQWURYHUVHQ HLQHU VXEMHNWRULHQWLHUWHQ 6R]LRORJLH ,Q
%HFN 8OULFK%HFN*HUQVKHLP (OLVDEHWK +UVJ 5LVNDQWH )UHLKHLWHQ )UDQNIXUW D 0 6
%HFN*HUQVKHLP (OLVDEHWK $XI GHP :HJ LQ GLH SRVWIDPLOLDOH )DPLOLH9RQ GHU
1RWJHPHLQVFKDIW ]XU :DKOYHUZDQGWVFKDIW ,Q %HFN 8OULFK%HFN*HUQVKHLP (OLVDEHWK
+UVJ 5LVNDQWH )UHLKHLWHQ )UDQNIXUW D 0 6 %HLYHUV $QGUHDV0LQDUW] &KULVWRI bU]WHPDQJHO LQ VWUXNWXUVFKZDFKHQ 5HJLR
QHQ =XNXQIWVRULHQWLHUWH /|VXQJVDQVlW]H EHU GLH 6HNWRUHQJUHQ]HQ KLQZHJ ,Q *HVHQQ
VFKDIWVSROLWLVFKH .RPPHQWDUH 1U 6 %OXP .DUO/|IIHUW 6DELQH D bU]WHPDQJHO LP .UDQNHQKDXV $XVPD‰ 8UVDFKHQ
*HJHQPD‰QDKPHQ )RUVFKXQJVJXWDFKWHQ LP $XIWUDJ GHU 'HXWVFKHQ .UDQNHQKDXVJHVHOO
VFKDIW 'VVHOGRUI
%OXP .DUO/|IIHUW 6DELQH E bU]WHPDQJHO LP .UDQNHQKDXV $XVPD‰ 8UVDFKHQ
*HJHQPD‰QDKPHQ )RUVFKXQJVJXWDFKWHQ LP $XIWUDJ GHU 'HXWVFKHQ .UDQNHQKDXVJHVHOO
VFKDIW =XVDPPHQIDVVXQJ 'VVHOGRUI
%RHFNK -UJHQ+XVWHU (UQVW8OULFK %HQ] %HQMDPLQ 6R]LDOSROLWLN LQ 'HXWVFK
ODQG $XÀ :LHVEDGHQ
%|KP 6XVDQQH (LQ /DQGDU]W IU :ROGHJN JHVXFKW ,Q 1RUGNXULHU 6WUHOLW]HU
=HLWXQJ YRP 6 %XQGHVlU]WHNDPPHU bU]WHVWDWLVWLN YHUVFKLHGHQH -DKUJlQJH RQOLQH DEUXIEDU XQWHU
KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV %XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ 'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH %HULFKW GHU %XQGHVUHJLH
UXQJ ]XU GHPRJUD¿VFKHQ /DJH XQG NQIWLJHQ (QWZLFNOXQJ GHV /DQGHV %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP GHV ,QQHUQ -HGHV $OWHU ]lKOW 'HPRJUD¿HVWUDWHJLH GHU
%XQGHVUHJLHUXQJ %HUOLQ
VI
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU %LOGXQJ XQG )RUVFKXQJ 'DV $OWHU KDW =XNXQIW %HU
OLQ%RQQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW D $EVFKOXVVEHULFKW ]XU 6WXGLH Ä:LUNXQJHQ
GHV 3ÀHJH:HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJVJHVHW]HV³ %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW E 'DWHQ GHV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQV %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU *HVXQGKHLW F /HXFKWWXUPSURMHNW 'HPHQ] %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG )QIWHU %H
ULFKW ]XU /DJH GHU lOWHUHQ *HQHUDWLRQ LQ GHU %XQGHVUHSXEOLN 'HXWVFKODQG 3RWHQ]LDOH GHV
$OWHUV LQ :LUWVFKDIW XQG *HVHOOVFKDIW 'HU %HLWUDJ lOWHUHU 0HQVFKHQ ]XP =XVDPPHQKDOW
GHU *HQHUDWLRQHQ %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG D $OWHUQ LP
:DQGHO =HQWUDOH (UJHEQLVVH GHV 'HXWVFKHQ $OWHUVVXUYH\V '($6 %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG E 6HFKVWHU
%HULFKW ]XU /DJH GHU lOWHUHQ *HQHUDWLRQ LQ GHU %XQGHVUHSXEOLN 'HXWVFKODQG $OWHUVELO
GHU LQ GHU *HVHOOVFKDIW %HUOLQ
%XQGHVPLQLVWHULXP IU 9HUNHKU %DX XQG 6WDGWHQWZLFNOXQJ 5HJLRQDOVWUDWH
JLH 'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH 'HQNDQVW|‰H IU GLH 3UD[LV %HUOLQ
'HXWVFKHU %XQGHVWDJ 6FKOXVVEHULFKW GHU (QTXHWH.RPPLVVLRQ Ä'HPRJUD¿
VFKHU :DQGHO +HUDXVIRUGHUXQJHQ XQVHUHU lOWHU ZHUGHQGHQ *HVHOOVFKDIW DQ GHQ (LQ]HO
QHQ XQG GLH 3ROLWLN³ 'UXFNVDFKH %RQQ
'UX\HQ 7KRPDV 'LH JUR‰H $OWHUVZHQGH ,Q ,Q $XV 3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJHVFKLFK
WH $OWHU XQG $OWHUQ %RQQ 6 Fischer 6WHIDQ 5HVVRXUFHQ GHU JHVXQGKHLWOLFKHQ XQG SÀHJHULVFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ
,Q 5HIHUDW *HVXQGKHLW GHV /DQGNUHLVHV 0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] +UVJ *HVXQGKHLWVEH
ULFKW GHV /DQGNUHLVHV 0HFNOHQEXUJ6WUHOLW] %HULFKWV]HLWUDXP ELV 6 *HPHLQVDPHU %XQGHVDXVVFKXVV 5LFKWOLQLH GHV *HPHLQVDPHQ %XQGHVDXV
VFKXVVHV EHU GLH %HGDUIVSODQXQJ VRZLH GLH 0D‰VWlEH ]XU )HVWVWHOOXQJ YRQ hEHUYHU
VRUJXQJ XQG 8QWHUYHUVRUJXQJ LQ GHU YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ 9HUVRUJXQJ %HGDUIVSODQXQJV
5LFKWOLQLH
.DVVHQlU]WOLFKH %XQGHVYHUHLQLJXQJ .%9 *UXQGGDWHQ ]XU YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKHQ
9HUVRUJXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG =DKOHQ )DNWHQ ,QIRUPDWLRQHQ
VII
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
Klose -RDFKLP 5HKEHLQ ,VDEHO bU]WHDWODV 'DWHQ ]XU 9HUVRUJXQJVGLFKWH
YRQ 9HUWUDJVlU]WHQ +J YRP :LVVHQVFKDIWOLFKHQ ,QVWLWXW GHU $2. :,G2 %HUOLQ
Klose -RDFKLP8KOHPDQQ 7KRPDV*XWVFKPLGW 6ZHQ bU]WHPDQJHO ± bU]
WHVFKZHPPH" $XVZLUNXQJHQ GHU $OWHUVVWUXNWXU YRQ bU]WHQ DXI GLH YHUWUDJVlU]WOLFKH
9HUVRUJXQJ +J YRP :LVVHQVFKDIWOLFKHQ ,QVWLWXW GHU $2. %RQQ
Kopetsch 7KRPDV 'HP *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ JHKHQ GLH bU]WH DXV 6WXGLH ]XU
$OWHUVVWUXNWXU XQG $U]W]DKOHQHQWZLFNOXQJ DNWXDOLVLHUWH XQG NRPSOHWW EHUDUEHLWHWH
$XÀ %HUOLQ
.U|KQHUW 6WHIIHQ2OVW 1LHQNH YDQ.OLQJKRO] 5HLQHU 'HXWVFKODQG 'LH
GHPRJUD¿VFKH =XNXQIW GHU 1DWLRQ +J YRP %HUOLQ,QVWLWXW IU %HY|ONHUXQJ XQG (QW
ZLFNOXQJ $XÀ %HUOLQ
.U|KQHUW 6WHIIHQ HW DO 'LH GHPRJUD¿VFKH =XNXQIW GHU 1DWLRQ :DV IUHLZLOOL
JHV (QJDJHPHQW IU GLH 5HJLRQHQ OHLVWHW +J YRP %HUOLQ,QVWLWXW IU %HY|ONHUXQJ XQG
(QWZLFNOXQJ $XÀ %HUOLQ
/RHIIHOKRO] +DQV 'LHWULFK YRQ 'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO XQG 0LJUDWLRQ DOV
0HJDWUHQGV ,Q $XV 3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJHVFKLFKWH 'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO 6
Motel-Klingebiel $QGUHDV:XUP 6XVDQQH7HVFK5|PHU &OHPHQV +UVJ $O
WHUQ LP :DQGHO %HIXQGH GHV 'HXWVFKHQ $OWHUVVXUYH\V '($6 7DEHOOHQDQKDQJ %HUOLQ
1DJHO (FNKDUG +UVJ 'DV *HVXQGKHLWVZHVHQ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 6WUXNWXU/HLV
WXQJHQ:HLWHUHQWZLFNOXQJ .|OQ $XÀ
2IIHUJHOG 6LONH 'LH 8QVFKlW]EDUHQ ,Q )UDQNIXUWHU 5XQGVFKDX 3DQRUDPD _ _ 2\HQ 5DLQHU/|KH ,UPJDUG 6R]LDOH 6LFKHUKHLW GXUFK 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ ,Q
6FKZDU]HU :ROIJDQJ +UVJ /HKUEXFK GHU 6R]LDOPHGL]LQ IU 6R]LDODUEHLW 6R]LDO
XQG +HLOSlGDJRJLN 'RUWPXQG 6 5HJLRQDOHU 3ODQXQJVYHUEDQG 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKH 6HHQSODWWH +UVJ +DXVlU]WOLFKH
9HUVRUJXQJ LQ GHU 0HFNOHQEXUJLVFKHQ 6HHQSODWWH 0RQLWRULQJ 1HXEUDQGHQEXUJ
5HLFKHQEDFK%HKQLVFK -DQD ,QVWDOOLHUHQ PXOWLSOHU +lXVHU DOV JHPHLQVFKDIW
OLFKHU 6WW]SXQNW YRQ 'LHQVWOHLVWXQJ XQG 1DFKEDUVFKDIW LQ OlQGOLFKHQ 5HJLRQHQ LQ GHU
YRP 'HPRJUD¿VFKHQ :DQGHO EHVRQGHUV EHWURIIHQHQ 0RGHOOUHJLRQ Ä6WHWWLQHU +DII³
)RUVFKXQJVEHULFKW LP 5DKPHQ GHU )RUVFKXQJVLQLWLDWLYH Ä=XNXQIW %DX³ %XQGHVDPW IU
%DXZHVHQ XQG 5DXPRUGQXQJ /HLS]LJ
VIII
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
Ritter *HUKDUG $ 6R]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJ LQ 'HXWVFKODQG XQG (QJODQG (QWVWHKXQJ
XQG *UXQG]JH LP 9HUJOHLFK 0QFKHQ
5REHUW .RFK,QVWLWXW D *HVXQGKHLWVEHULFKWHUVWDWWXQJ GHV %XQGHV *HVXQGKHLW LQ
'HXWVFKODQG %HUOLQ
Robert Koch-Institut E *HVXQGKHLWVEHULFKWHUVWDWWXQJ GHV %XQGHV *HVXQGKHLW
LQ 'HXWVFKODQG 'DWHQWDEHOOHQ %HUOLQ
Rothgang +HLQ] HW DO 'LIIHUHQ]LHUXQJ SULYDWHU .UDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJVWDULI
QDFK *HVFKOHFKW %HVWDQGVDXIQDKPH 3UREOHPH 2SWLRQHQ *XWDFKWHQ IU GDV %XQGHV
PLQLVWHULXP IU )DPLOLH 6HQLRUHQ )UDXHQ XQG -XJHQG %UHPHQ
5|WWJHU/LHSPDQQ %HDWH 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJNHLW LP $OWHU $NWXHOOH %HIXQGH XQG
.RQVHTXHQ]HQ IU NQIWLJH 9HUVRUJXQJVWUXNWXUHQ :HLQKHLP XQG 0QFKHQ
6D‰ $QNH&KULVWLQH:XUP 6XVDQQH=LHVH 7KRPDV $OWHU .UDQNKHLW" *H
VXQGKHLWV]XVWDQG XQG *HVXQGKHLWVHQWZLFNOXQJ ,Q 5REHUW.RFK,QVWLWXW +UVJ *H
VXQGKHLW XQG .UDQNKHLW LP $OWHU %HUOLQ 6 6FKQHLGHU 1RUEHUW )'RUEULW] -UJHQ :R EOHLEHQ GLH .LQGHU" 'HU QLHGULJHQ
*HEXUWHQUDWH DXI GHU 6SXU ,Q $XV 3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJHVFKLFKWH 'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO
%RQQ 6 6FKXOHQEXUJ -0DWWKLDV *UDI YRQ GHU 9HUVLFKHUXQJV|NRQRPLN .DUOVUXKH
6FKZHQWNHU %M|UQ9DXSHO -DPHV : (LQH QHXH .XOWXU GHV :DQGHOV ,Q $XV
3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJHVFKLFKWH 'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO %RQQ 6 6HLGO &ODXGLXV :DUXP ZLU QLFKW PHKU lOWHU ZHUGHQ ,Q $XV 3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJH
VFKLFKWH $OWHU XQG $OWHUQ %RQQ 6 6HLIHUW +DUWPXW $OWHUQVJHUHFKWH $UEHLWV]HLWHQ ,Q $XV 3ROLWLN XQG =HLWJH
VFKLFKWH bOWHUH *HVHOOVFKDIWOLFKHV 3RWHQWLDO %RQQ 6 6LPRQ 0LFKDHO 'DV *HVXQGKHLWVV\VWHP LQ 'HXWVFKODQG (LQH (LQIKUXQJ LQ
6WUXNWXU XQG )XQNWLRQVZHLVH $XÀ %HUQ
6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 'HPRJUD¿VFKHU :DQGHO LQ
'HXWVFKODQG $XVZLUNXQJHQ DXI .UDQNHQKDXVEHKDQGOXQJHQ XQG 3ÀHJHEHGUIWLJH LP
%XQG XQ LQ GHQ /lQGHUQ +HIW :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKH bPWHU GHV %XQGHV XQG GHU /lQGHU 3ÀHJHVWDWLVWLN 3ÀHJH
LP 5DKPHQ GHU 3ÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJ .UHLVYHUJOHLFK :LHVEDGHQ
,;
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW %HY|ONHUXQJ 'HXWVFKODQGV ELV .RRUGLQLHUWH
%HY|ONHUXQJVYRUDXVEHUHFKQXQJ :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW %HY|ONHUXQJ 'HXWVFKODQGV ELV NRRUGLQLHUWH
%HY|ONHUXQJVYRUDXVEHUHFKQXQJ :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 6WDWLVWLVFKHV -DKUEXFK )U GLH %XQGHVUHSXEOLN
'HXWVFKODQG PLW ÄLQWHUQDWLRQDOHQ hEHUVLFKWHQ³ :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E *HVXQGKHLW 3HUVRQDO )DFKVHULH 5HLKH
:LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW F *HVXQGKHLW 3HUVRQDO ELV )DFKVHULH 5HLKH :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW D 3UHVVHPLWWHLOXQJ YRP $SULO ± *H
VXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQ DXI UXQG 0LOOLDUGHQ (XUR JHVWLHJHQ :LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW E *HVXQGKHLW $XVJDEHQ )DFKVHULH 5HLKH
:LHVEDGHQ
6WDWLVWLVFKHV %XQGHVDPW F *HVXQGKHLWVDXVJDEHQUHFKQXQJ :LHVEDGHQ
:HVVHOV 0LFKDHO 5HJLRQDOH 9HUVRUJXQJVXQWHUVFKLHGH LQ 'HXWVFKODQG ,Q 'LH
(UVDW]NDVVH =ZHLIHO 3HWHU(LVHQ 5RODQG 9HUVLFKHUXQJV|NRQRPLN $XÀ %HUOLQ
Internet:
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
KWWSZZZESEGHGLHBESE30)=9&KDQFHQBXQGB3HUVSHNWLYHQKWPO
KWWSZZZUHJLRQVFKDIIW]XNXQIWGHFOQB'(+RPHKRPHSDJHBBQRGH
KWPO"BBQQQ WUXH KWWSZZZUHJLRQDOHGDVHLQVYRUVRUJHGH KWWSZZZESEGHDSX]RHNRQRPLVFKHDXVZLUNXQJHQGHVGHPRJUD¿VFKHQ
ZDQGHOV"S DOO KWWSZZZESEGHWKHPHQ:0='=XUBGHPRJUD¿VFKHQB/DJHBGHUB1DWLRQ
KWPO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW%HYRHONHUXQJ%HYR
HONHUXQJVVWDQG%HYRHONHUXQJVVWDQGKWPO KWWSZZZGHXWVFKHVR]LDOYHUVLFKHUXQJGHGHZHJZHLVHUHLQIXHKUXQJKWPO
;
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
KWWSZZZSNYLQIRVQHWJHVFKLFKWHGHUSNYSKS KWWSZZZSNYGHYHUEDQG KWWSZZZSNYSULYDWHNUDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJQHWSNYEHLWUDJVHUKRHKXQJHQIXHU
ZDKUVFKHLQOLFK KWWSZZZJHVXQGKHLWVVWUXNWXUUHIRUPGHVHUYLFHVIDTSO"YDO MRE X
QL IDT KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW%HYRHONHUXQJ6WHUEH
IDHOOH7DEHOOHQ/HEHQVHUZDUWXQJ%XQGHVODHQGHU0DHQQOLFKKWPO KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHPLQLVWHULXPDXIJDEHQXQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDXIJDEHQKWPO
KWWSZZZJEDGH KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHNUDQNHQYHUVLFKHUXQJ¿QDQ]LHUXQJJHVXQGKHLWVIRQGV
KWPO KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHVSHFLDOGRZQORDGV6WDW$EELOGXQJVWHLOSGI
KWWSZZZJNYVSLW]HQYHUEDQGGH,76*.UDQNHQNDVVHQ/LVWHJNYQHW KWWSZZZFHFXGHYHUVLFKHUXQJVSÀLFKWJUHQ]HKWPO KWWSZZZZGUGHVHQGXQJHQWDJHVJHVSUDHFKVGEGLHNUDQ
NHQNDVVHQPDFKHQKRKHJHZLQQHKWPO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
KWWSZZZNEYGHKWPO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW*HVXQGKHLWB*UD¿N
1RPLQDOKWPO KWWSVZZZGHVWDWLVGH'(=DKOHQ)DNWHQ*HVHOOVFKDIW6WDDW*HVXQGKHLWB*UD¿N
$QWHLO%,3KWPO KWWSVHUYLFHPYQHWGHVPLQGLNDWRUHQGDWHQBEHULFKWHHELERLQWHUWK,B[OV
KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV KWWSZZZEXQGHVDHU]WHNDPPHUGHSDJHDVS"KLV KWWSZZZEYHUIJGHHQWVFKHLGXQJHQUVBEYUKWPO KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHSÀHJHYHUVLFKHUXQJEHLWUDJVVDW]EHLWUDJVKRHKH
KWPO KWWSZZZUHJLRQVFKDIIW]XNXQIWGHQQB'(3URMHNWH6WHWWLQHU+DIISUR
MHNWHBBVWHWWLQHUBBKDIIBBQRGHKWPO"BBQQQ WUXH KWWSZZZUHJLRQVFKDIIW]XNXQIWGHFOQBQQB'(3URMHNWH6WHWWLQHU
+DII6R]LDOH'DVHLQVYRUVRUJH)DPLOLH-XQJH$OWHSURMHNWKWPO KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGHPHQ]]XNXQIWVZHUNVWDWWGHPHQ]KWPO
KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]KWPO
KWWSZZZPHKUJHQHUDWLRQHQKDHXVHUGHZHEJXHVW KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]SÀHJHZRKQ
JUXSSHQKWPO ;,
/LWHUDWXUYHU]HLFKQLV
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
‡
KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]GHPHQ]KWPO
KWWSZZZEPJEXQGGHSÀHJHGDVSÀHJHQHXDXVULFKWXQJVJHVHW]¿QDQ]LHUXQJ
KWPO KWWSZZZDRNEYGHOH[LNRQJLQGH[BKWPO KWWSZZZLPDJLQJVHUYLFHGHKRPHBKWPO KWWSZZZDRNEYGHOH[LNRQRLQGH[BKWPO KWWSVLVRQOLQHVWDWLVWLNPYGHVDFKJHELHWH$/VWDQG.UDQNHQKDHXVHUB
XQGB%HWWHQBQDFKB.UDQNHQKDXVW\SHQ KWWSERHUVH3UD[LVERHUVHB5HVXOWFIP KWWSZZZVSLHJHOGHXQLVSLHJHOZXQGHUEDUDHOWHVWHUVWXGHQWDXVWUDOLHUDOODQ
VWHZDUWPDFKWYLHUWHQXQLDEVFKOXVVDKWPO KWWSZZZQHZVGHJHVHOOVFKDIWMDHKULJHUODHXIWUHNRUGPDUD
WKRQ KWWSZZZHSRFKWLPHVGHMDHKULJHUDOVDHOWHVWHUPHQVFKDXIGHPPRXQWHYH
UHVWKWPO KWWSZZZNOHLQH]HLWXQJDWQDFKULFKWHQOHXWHPXOWLPHGLDGR"DFWLRQ VKRZ(QWU\B
GHWDLO SURMHFW KWWSZZZEHWUHXWHUXUODXEWDUQHZLW]GHKRPHKWPO ;,,
Eidesstattliche Erklärung
,FK HUNOlUH DQ (LGHV VWDWW GDVV LFK GLH YRUOLHJHQGH $UEHLW VHOEVWVWlQGLJ XQG RKQH %HQXW
]XQJ DQGHUHU DOV GHU DQJHJHEHQHQ +LOIVPLWWHO DQJHIHUWLJW KDEH 'LH DXV IUHPGHQ 4XHOOHQ
GLUHNW RGHU LQGLUHNW EHUQRPPHQHQ *HGDQNHQ KDEH LFK DOV VROFKH NHQQWOLFK JHPDFKW
2UW 'DWXP
8QWHUVFKULIW
Document
Kategorie
Seele and Geist
Seitenansichten
15
Dateigröße
4 782 KB
Tags
1/--Seiten
melden